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202 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the body's electrochemical communication circutry
nervous system
the brains special capacity for change
plasticity
a nerve cell
neuron
also called sensory nerves; nerves that carry information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors
afferent nerves
also called motor nerves; nerves that carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body
efferent nerves
the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system (CNS)
the network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the body system consisting of the sensory nerves, whose function is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about conditions such as pain and temperature, and the motor nerves, whose function is to tell muscles what to do.
somatic nerves system
the body's system that takes messages to and from the body's internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate, and digestion
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
the part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body
sympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body
parasympathetic nervous system
the second of two types of cells in the nervous system; they provide support, nutritional benefits, and other functions and keep neurons running smoothly
glial cells
one of two types of cells in the nervous system; are the nerve cells that handle the information-processing function
neurons
the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance
cell body
treelike fibers projecting from a neuron, which receive information and orient it toward the neurons cell body
dendrites
the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body toward other cells
axon
a layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons
myelin sheath
in an inactive neuron, the voltage between the inside and outside of the axon wall (-60 - -70 mV)
resting potential
the brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon (goes from -70 to 40 mV)
action potential
the principle that once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity (its threshold), it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any intensity
all-or-nothing principle
extensive wrinkled outer layer of the forebrain; governs higher brain functions, such as thinking, learning and consciousness
cerebral cortex
relays information between lower and higher brain centers
thalamus
governs eating, drinking, and sex; plays a role in emotion and stress
hypothalamus
diffuse collection of neurons involved in arousal and sterotyped patterns such as walking
reticular formation
involved in fear and discrimination of objects necessary for survival
amygdala
when the __ is severed, visual information from the left or right visual field is restricted to one side of the brain
corpus callosum
tiny spaces between neurons; the gaps between neurons are referred to as synaptic gaps
synapes
chemical substances that are sotred in very tiny sacs within teh terminal buttons and involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron
neurotransmitters
neurotransmitter that stimulates the firing of neurons and ins involved in muscle action, learning, and memory
acetylcholiine (ACh)
neurotransmitter that has a key role in exciting many neurons ot fire and is especially involved in learning and memory. too much leads to migraines and seizures.
glutamate
neurotransmitter that plays a key function in the brain inhibiting many neurons form firing. low levels linked with anxiety
GABA
neurotransmitter that inhibits the firing of neurons in the central nervous system but excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract. too little is associated with depression. too much triggers agitated states
norepinephrine
neurotransmitter that helps control voluntary movement and affects sleep, mood, attention, learning, and the ability to regonize opportuniteis for rewarding experiences in teh environment. low levels associated with parkinsons. high levels associated with schizophrenia
dopamine
neurotransmitter involved in regulation of sleep, mood, attention and learning. low levels associated with depression.
seratonin
neurotransmitter that are natural opiates. they shield the body from pain and elevate feelings of pleasure
endorphins
neurotransmitter and hormone that plays an important role in teh experience of love and social bonding.
oxytocin
networks of nerve cells that integrate sensory input and motor output
neural networks
an abnormal disruption in the tissue of the brain resulting from injury or disease
brain lesioning
records the brains electrical activity
electroencephalograph (EEG)
the recorded chart of an EEG
electroecephalogram
a brain imaging technique that produces a three dimensional image obtained from X rays of the head that are assembled into a composite image by a computer, provides valuable info about the location and extent o damage involving stroke, language disorder, or loss of memory
CAT scan
a brain imaging technique that is based on metabolic changes in teh brain related to activity, measures the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain
PET scan
a brain imaging technique that involves creating a magnetic field around a persons body and using radio waves to construct images of the persons tissues and biochemical activities
MRI
a brain imaging technique that monitors oxygenated blood levels in teh brain to show brain function
fMRI
located at skulls rear, the lowest portion of teh brain, consisting of the medulla, cerebellum, and pons
hind brain
-begins where teh spinal enters the skull
-controls breating and heart rate and regulates reflexs
medulla
the stemlike brain area that includes much of teh hindbain (not cerebellum) and teh midbrain; it connects with teh spinal cord at its lower end and tehn extends upward to encase the reticular formation in the midbrain
brain stem
rounded structure involved in motor coordination
cerebellum
located between teh hindbrain and forebrain, an area in which many nerve-fiber systems ascend and descend to connect the higher and lower potions of teh brain; in particular, this relays info between the brain and the eyes and ears
midbrain
a system in the midbrain comprising of a diffuse collection of neurons involved in sterotyped patterns of behavior such as walking, sleeping, and turing t attend to a sudden noise
reticular formation
governs sleep and arousal
pons
involved in fear and the discrimination of objects necessary for organisms survival
amygdala
__ damages a section near the bottom of the midbrain called the substatia nigra
parkinson disease
the brains largest division and its most forward part
forebrain
a loosely connected network of structures under the cerebral cortex, imortant in both memory and emtion. its two principal structures are the amygdala and teh hippocampus
limbic system
an almond shaped structure within the base of the temporal lobe that is involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for teh organisms survival such as appropriate food, mates, and social rivals
amygdala
the structure in teh limbic system that ahs a special role in the storage of memories
hippocampus
large neuron clusters located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex that work with teh cerebellum and the cerebral cortext to control and coordinate voluntary movements
basal ganglia
a small forebrain structure located just below the thalamus that monitors three pleasurable activiteis eating, drinking, and sex as well as emotion stress and reward
hypothalamus
part of the forebrain the outer layer of teh brain resonsible for the most complex mental functions such as thinking and planning
cerebral cortex
the outermost part of teh cerebral cortex, making up 80 percent of teh cortex in teh human brain
neocortex
sturctures located at the back of eth head that resond to visual stimuli
occipital lobes
sturctures in teh cerebral cortex that are located just above the ears and are involved in hearing language processing and memory
temporal loves
the portion of teh cerebral cortex behind the forehead, involved in personality intelligence, and teh control of voluntary muscles
frontal lobes
structures at teh top oand toward teh rear of teh head that are involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control
parietal lobes
a region in the cerebral cortex that processes information about body sensations, located at teh front of the parietal lobes
somatosensory cortex
a region in teh cerebral cortex that processes information about voluntary movement, located just behind the frontal lobes
motor cortex
sometimes called association areas, the region of teh cerebral cotex that is the site of teh highest intellectual funtions such as thinking and problem solving
association cortex
the large bundle of axons that conects the brains two hemispheres responsible for relaying information between teh two sides
corpus callosum
when a person is logical and rational they are __ brained
left
when a person is creative or artistic they are __ brained
right
the body system consiting of a set of glands taht regulate tthe activites of certain organs by releaing their chemicals products into the bloodstream
endocrine system
organs or tissues in teh body that create chemicals that control many of our bodily functions
glands
chemical messengers that are produced by teh endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream to all parts of teh body
hormones
a pea sized gland just beneath the hypothalamus that controls growth and regulates other glands
pituitary gland
glands at the top of each kidney that are resonsible for regulating moods, energy level, and teh ability to cope with stress
adrenal glands
a dual process gland under the stomach that performs both digestive and endocrine functions
pancrease
sex-related endocrine glands in teh uterus that produce hormones related to womens sexual development and reproduction
ovaries
sex-related endocrine glands in the scrotum that produce hormones related to mens sexual development and reporduction
testes
the brains ability to repair itself
placisity
the process by which axons of some healthy neurons adjacent to damaged cells grow new branches
collateral sprouting
the process by which the damaged region's fuction is taken over by another areas of the brain
substitution of function
the process by which new neurons are generated
neurogenesis
implants of healthy tissue into damaged brains
brain grafts
unique primitive cells that have the capacity to develop into most types of human cells
stem cells
in teh human cell, threadlike structures that come in 23 pais, one member of each pair originating from each parent, and that contain teh remakable substance DNA
chromosomes
a complex molecule in the cell's chromosomes that carries genetic information
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
the units of hereditary information consisting of short segments of chromosomes composed of DNA
genes
the priciple that if one gene of a pair is dominant and one is recessive, the dominant gene overrides the recessive gene. a recessive gene exerts its infulence only if both genes of a pair are recessive
dominant-recessive genes provide
a genetic meathod in which organisms are chosen for reproduction based on how much of a particular trait they display
selective breeding
the study of teh degree and nature of heredity's influence on behavior
behavior genetics
an individuals genetic heritage; his or her actual genetic material
genotype
an individuals obeservable characteristics
phenotype
the reponses of individuals to environmental stressors
stress
circumstances and events that threaten individuals that tax their coping abilities and that cause physiological changes to ready teh body to handle the assault of stress
stressors
stress that occurs in resonse to an immediate perceived threat
acute stress
stress that goes on continuously
chronic stress
the process of receiving stimulus energies from teh external environment and transforming those energies into neural energy
sensation
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it has meaning
perception
the operation in sensation and perception in which sensory receptors register information about the external environment and send it up to the brain for interpretation
bottom-up processing
the operation in sensation and perception, launched by cognitive processing at teh brains higher levels, that allows teh organism to sense what is happening and to apply that fraework to information fromt eh world
top-down processing
detection of light, perceived as sight
photoreception
detection of pressure, vibration and movement, perceived as touch, hearing, and equillibrium
mechanoreceptino
detection of chemical stimuli; perceived as smell and taste
chemoreception
specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory (afferent) nerves and the brain
sensory receptors
an experience in which onse sense induces an experience in another sense
synaethesia
condition where in amputees, the limb that contains teh sensory receptors is gone byt the areas of teh nervous system that received information from thos receptors are still there causing confusion
phantom limb pain
the minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect
absolute threshold
irrelevant and competing stimuli-not only soudns but also any distracting stimuli for our senses
noise
the degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before the difference is detected
difference threshold
the principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount) to be percieved as different
weber's law
the detection of information below the level of conscious awareness
subliminal perception
a theory of perception that focuses on decision making about stimuli in the presensce of uncertainty
signal detection theory
the process of focusing awareness on a narrowed aspect of the environment
attention
the process of focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others
selective attention
attention is selective but also is __
shiftable
the fact that when we encounter an emotionally charged stimulus, we often fail to recognize a stimulus that is presented immediatly after it
emotion-induced blindness
the failure to detect unexpected events when our attention is engaged by a task
inattentional blindness
a predisposition or readiness to perceive something in a particular way
perceptual set
a change in teh responsiveness of teh sensory system based on the average level of surrounding stimulation
sensory adaptation
a form of electromagnetic energy that can be described in terms of wavelengths
light
the distance form teh peak of one wave to teh peak of teh next
wavelength
the wavelength of light that is reflected from a stimulus determines it __ or color
hue
the brightness of light
amplitude
whether the waves are all the same or a mix of waves
purity
the white outer part of teh eye that helps to maintain the shape of teh eye and to protect it from injuy
sclera
the colored part of teh eye which might be light blue in one individual and dark brown in another
iris
the opening in teh center of teh iris
pupil
a clear membrane just in front of teh eye
cornea
a transparent and somewhat flexible disk-shaped structure filled with a gelatin like material
lens
the multilayered light-sensitive surface in the eye that records electromagnetic energy and converts it to neuralimpulses fro processing in teh brain
retina
the receptor cells in the retina that are senstivie to light but not very useful for color vision
rods
the receptor cells in teh retina that allow for color perception
cones
the most important part of the retina
fovea
the structure at the back of teh eye, made up of axons of the ganglion cells, that carries visual information to teh brain for further processing
optic nerve
neurons in teh brains visual system that respond to particular features of a stimulus
feature detectors
the simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways
parallel processing
in the sense of vision, the bringing together and integration of what is processed by different neural pathways or cells
binding
theory stating that color perception is produced by three types of cone receptors in teh retina that are particular sensitive to different, but overlaping ranges of wavelenths
trichromatic theory
theory stating that cells in teh visual system respond to complementary pairs of red-green and blue-yellow colors; a given cell might be excited by red and inhibited by green, whereas another cell might be excited by yellow and inhibited by blue
opponent-process theory
teh principle by which we organize the perceptual field into stimuli that stand out (figure) and those that are left over (ground)
figure -ground relationship
a school of thought interested in how people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns
gestalt psychology
the ability to perceive objects three-dimensionally
depth perception
depth cues that depend on the combination of the images in teh left and right eyes and on teh way the two eyes work together
binocular cues
a binocular cue to depth and distance in which teh muscle ovments in out two eyes provide information about how deep and or far away somehting is
convergence
powerful depth cues availible form the image in one eye, either the right or the left
monocular cues
all other things being equal objects positioned higher in a picture are seen as farther away
height in the field of view
objects that are farther away take up less space on the retina so things that appear smaller are perceived to be farther away
linear perspective
we percieve an object that partially conceals or overlaps another object as closer
overlap
the cue involves changes in perception due to the position of the light and the position of the viewer
shading
texure becomes denser and finer the farther away it is from the viewer
texture gradient
the perception that a stationary object is moving
apparent movement
the recognition that objects are constant and nchanging even though sensory input about them is changing
perceptual constancy
the recognition that an object remains the same size even though teh retinal image of teh object changes
size constancy
the recognition that an object remains the same shape even though its orientation to you changes
shape constancy
the recognition that an object remains the same color even though different amounts of light fall on it
color constancy
the number of cycles (full wavelengths) that pass through a point in a given time interval
frequency
the perceptual interpretaion of teh frequency of a sound
pitch
the amount of pressure the sound wave porduces relative to a standard
aplitude
teh perception of a cound waves amplitude
loudness
the outermost part of the ear, consisting of the pinna and external auditory canal
outer ear
the part of teh ear taht chennels sound through the eardrum, hammer, anvil, and stirrup to the inner ear
middle ear
the part of teh ear that includes the oval window chochlea, and basilar membrane and whose function is to convert sound waves into neural impluses and sned them to the brain
inner ear
transmits sound waves to teh choclea
oval window
a tubular fluid-filled structure that is coiled up like a snail
cochlea
lines the inner wall of teh cochlea and runs its entire length
basilar membrane
a jellylike flap above the cilia that generates impulses that teh brain interprets as sound
techtorial membrane
theory on how the inner ear registers the frequency of sound, stating that each frequency produces vibrations at a particular spot on the basilar membrane
place theory
theory on how the inner ear registers the frequency of sound, stating that teh preceptino of a sounds frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires
frequency theory
modification of frequency theory stating that a cluster of nerve cells can fire neural impulses in rapid succession producing a volley of impulses
volley principle
the nerve structure hat receives information about sound from the hair cells of teh inner ear and carries these neural impulses to the brains auditory areas
auditory nerve
sensory nerve endings uder the skin that respond to changes in temperature at or near the skin and provide input to keep the body's temperature at 98.6 degrees fahrenheit
thermorecpetors
the sensation that warns us of damage to our bodies
pain
sore torn muscles produce __ which stimulate teh receptors and cuase the experience of pain
prostaglandins
in the __, fibers connect directly with the thalamus and then to the motor and sensory areas of teh cerebral cortex
fast pathway
in the __, pain information travels through the limbic system, that delyays the arival information at the cerebral cortex by seconds
slow pathway
rounded bumps above the tongues surface that contain the tast buds teh receptors for taste
papillae
the taste of L-gluatamte (found in asain foods)
umami
the lining of the roof of the nasal cavity, containing a sheet of receptor cells for smell
olfactory epithelium
mates with differing sest of genes that produce healthier offspiring with the broadest immune systems
major histocmpatibility compolex
senses that provide information about movement posture, and orientation
kinesthetic senses
sense that provides information about balance and movment
vestibular sense
three fluid filled circular tubes in teh inner ear containing the sensory receptors that detect head motin caused when we tilt or move our head and or body
semicircular canals
informatino about the position of our limbs and body parts in relation to to other parts
proprioceptive feedback
located in the brains left hemisphere and is involved in the contol of speech, individuals with damage to this area have problems saying words
brocas area
the portion of the left hemisphere in understanding language. individuals with damage to his area cannot comprehend words
wernicke's area
a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter's effects.
agonist
A drug that blocks a neurotransmitter's effects
antagonist
he spinal column contains a neural gate that can be open (allowing the perception of pain) or closed (blocking the perception of pain)
gate-control theory of pain
The process of transforming physical energy into electrochemical energy.
transduction
A discrepancy between reality and the perceptual representation of it.
visual illusion
the way that automatically reading a color name can make it difficult to name the color in which the word is printed
stroop effect
We are able to determine from where a sound is coming because of __
timing and intensity.
The back of the tongue is most sensitive to __
bitterness
Smells can often bring up emotional memories because the neural pathways for smell go through the __
limbic system
In order to determine your _____, you might slowly turn up the volume on the stereo one decibel at a time until you could just hear it
absolute threshold
_____ is to bottom-up processing as _____ is to top-down processing.
Sensation, perception
The absolute threshold is the level at which someone can detect a stimulus ____ percent of the time.
50
The visible spectrum of light is __
between 400 and 700 nm.
Pastel colors have __ purity than primary colors.
less
the __ are responsible for perceiving that your head is moving up or down, left or right, and forwards or backwards
semicircular canals
Cells that transmit information from outside stimulus to the brain are called.
sensory receptors