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211 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an inurty to the brain produced by a violent blow and followed by a temporary or prolonged loss of function
a condition in which the brain swells rapidly and catatrophically after a person suffers a second cuncussion before symptoms from an earlier one have subsided
second impact syndrome
can be caused by:
-a blow to the head
-a fall
-sudden severe shaking
-seen frequently in sports such as football, hockey and boxing
-motor vehicle accidents
occurs when athlete recieves a second blow to the head
during SIS, it is thought that the brains arterioles lose their ability to regulate their __ and therefore lose control over cerebral blood flow, cauing massive cerebral edema
name 3 test used to diagnose concussions
-imPACT test
-the romberg test
-sport concussion assessment tool (SCAT)
a graded symptom checklist
cognitive assessment drills
brief physical examination
SCAT test
"immediate Post concussion assessment and cogntitive test"
measures symptoms, verbal and visual emory, and reaction time
imPACT test
the MCL of the thumb
Ulnar collateral ligament
caused by excessive radial deviation of the thumb proximal phalanx
ulnar collateral ligament sprain
skiing, automobile accidents (airbags), and falling and utting ones hand out to brace teh fall is a sport where __ sprains are commonly seen
__% of UCL tears have been treated with immobilization
fibrous cartilage in teh shoulder, helps keep the humeral head centered and stabilized in teh joint, functions as a shock absorbers for teh arm like that of teh meniscus in the knee
the __ of the shoulder labrum has vascular supply
outer rim
a type I shoulder labrum tear is a __ tear
a type II-IV shoulder labrum tear are __ tears
characterized by:
fraying on teh outer ruim of teh labrum, degenerative, most common in middle aged to elderly patients
type I labrum tear
characterized by: fraying like in a type I
-detached biceps anchor
-known as a Bankart lesion
type II labrum tear
characterized by:
-bucket handle tear
normal biceps tendon attachement
type III labrum tear
characterized by:
similar to type II
-tear in the biceps tendon
Type IV labrum tear
seen in overhead throwers, form overuse, outside force dislodgeing humeral head from socket, and abnormal rotation of humeral head
shoulder labrum tear
type __ labrum tear should be treated with NSAIDS and RICE, type __ need arthoscopic surgery
__ is also known as tennis elbow
lateral epicondylitis
__ is known as golfers elbow
medial epicondylitis
this injury can be obtained by typing on the computer too much
medial and lateral epicondylitis
__ toxin was researched to see if it could help cure med/lat epicondylitis
caused by falling on lateral shoulder while arem is adducted, fallingon outstrechted and or elbow while arm is adducted, overuse, and previous injury
acromioclavicular joint sprains
the most frequent kind of AC joint sprain
type I
classification system for AC joint sprains
patient will say they fell or rolled, presents are held in adduction
AC joint sprain
2 tests for an AC joint sprain
-piano key sign
-AC traction test
in this injury may see:
a locking, clicking, or catching sensation in your hip joint, pain in you hip or groain, stiffness or limited ROM in hip joint
hip labrum tear
there are __ compartments of the quadraceps
the most vulnerable compartment of teh quadracep
anterior, extensor compartment
muscles that make up the quadracep
-vastus femoris
-vastus lateralis
-vastus intermedius
-vastus medialis
result of a direct external blow to relaxed quad muscles
quadracep contusion
when an intramuscular hematoma calcifies and progressively ossiffies
myositis ossificans traumatica
__% of large hematomas are associated with muscle contusions and sprains
a severe limitation of knee flextion fro quad contusions
<90 degrees
what is the difference between a pulled and strained hamstring?
there is none
the hamstring is made up of __ muscles
muscles of the hamstring
-biceps femoris
when muscles fibers are stratched to far, resulting in minor bleeding
grade 1 strain
when microtears in teh muscle fibers
grade 2 strain
when rupture of the muscle occurs
grade 3 strain
the patella is a __ bone
casued by simultaneous roational force with teh contraction of the quadricep
patella subluxation/dislocation
patella subluxation/dislocation is more common in __ because of greater __ in the hips
females, Q angle
4 goals to meet for patella subluxation/dislocation
-knee can straiten fully w/o pain
-knee and leg regained normal strength
-no swelling
-patient able to bend, squat and walk w/o pain
starts at the gastrocnemius and soleus and ends at teh calcaneus
achilles tendon
the __ takes the largest forces in teh body
achilles tendon
special test to diagnose an achilles tendon tear
thompson test
there are tibia and fibula fractures especially in the __
a __ brace will lessen the force of impact while walking for a tibia and fibula fracture
pneumatic leg
more commonly known as shin splints
medial tibial stress syndrome
a condition that leads to pain in teh posteromedial aspect of teh distal two thirds of the tibia
medial tibial stress syndrome
runners, jumpers, volleyball players, basketball players, dancers are all susecptable to __
medial tibial stress syndrome
medial tibial stress syndrome are __ of all lower leg injuries
most common lower leg injury
medial tibial stress syndrome
a condition of pain or discomfort in the leg from repetitive running on hard surfaces or forcible excessive use of the foot flexors
medial tibial stress syndrome
most common cause of medial tibial stress syndrome:
foot pronation
__ is teh best treatment for medial tibial stress syndrome
characterized by an injury to the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the big toe
turf toe
defined as a sprain to the soft tissue support stuctures of teh MTP joint
turf toe
MTP joint stand for :
metatarsophalangeal joint
teh most common casue of turftoe:
hyperextension of the metatarsophalangeal joint
3 arches of teh foot
the __ is highly vulnerable to a variety of inures
the foot
__ should elicit a response when gently tapped
tendon reflexes
occurs from jump or fall from height and often results in avulsion fractures anterioly and posteriorly, may present as posterior tibialis tendonitis
calcaneal fracture
2 places to get pulse form the foot
-dorsalis pedis and posteror tibial arteries
occurs due to repetitive trauma and is characterized by sudden onset in plantar calcaneal area
calcaneal stress fracture
traction injury at apophysis of calcaneus where achiles attaches
apophysitis of teh calcaneus (severs disease)
occurs when foot hyperplantarflexed with foot alrady plataflexed and rearfoot locked resulting in dorsal displacement of metatarsal bases
trasometatarsal fracture dislocation (lisfranc injury)
caused by sudden starts, stops, or changes of direction, irritation of fat pad, pain oftern on the lateral aspect due to heel strike pattern
heel contusion
associated with excessive pronation, forefoot varus, wearing tight shoes, being overweight, excessive exercise placing undo stress on arch
pes plantus foot (flatfoot)
pes cavus is known as __
high arch foot
having a higher arch than normal; associated with excessive supination, accentuated high medial longitudinal arch
pes cavus
attributed to heel spurs, plantar fascia irritation and bursitis, catch all term used for pain in proximal arch and heel
plantar fascitis
fracture of metatarsal caused by inversion and plantar flexion, direct force (stepped on ) or repetitive trauma
jones fracture
a joans fracture is most commonly on the __
base of the 5th metatarsal
generally caused by kicking non-yielding object, pushes joint beyond normal ROM or imparting a twisting motion on teh toe-disrupting ligaments and joint capsule
sprained toes
exostosis of 1rst metatarsal head, associated with forefoot varus; shoes that are too narrow, pointed, or short, bursa becomes inflamed and thickens, enlarging joint, and causing lateral malaignment of the great toe
bunion (hallux valgus deformity)
__ impacts the 5th metatarsophalangeal joint, causes medial displacement of 5th toe
bunionette (tailors bunion)
caused by having an abnormally short 1rst metatarsal, making 2nd toe ook longer, more weight bearing occurs on 2nd toe as a result and can impact gait, stress fracture could develop
mortons toe
a flexible deformity that become fixed due to a flexion contracture in the PIP joint
cuased by direct pressure dropping an object on toe, kicking another object, repetitive shear forces on tonail, blood accumulates underneath toenail, produces exreme pain and ultimatly loss of nail
subungual hematoma
a flexion contracture of the DIP which also can become fixed
mallet toe
a flexion contracture of teh DIP joint but there is hyperextension at the MP joint
claw toe
the lower leg has __ compartments
the compartments of the L leg are __
-superficial posterior
-deep posterior
used when a fracture is suspected in lower leg
a blow to the tibia, fibula, or heel to create vibratory force that resonates w/in fracture causing pain
percussion test
used when a fracture is suspected in lower leg:
compression of tibia and fibula either above or below site of concern
compression test
squeezing the calf muscle while the foot is extended off tabel to test the integrity of teh achilles tendon
a positive thompson test results in __ of the foot
no movment
test for deep vein thrombophlebitits, with knee extended and foot off table, ankle is moved into dorsiflexion, pain in calf is +
homans test
2 kinds of ankle stability tests
anterior drawer test
talar tilt test
used to determine damag to anterior talofibular ligament primarily and other lateral ligament secondarily, a + test occurs when the foot slides forward and or makes a clunking sould as it reaches the end point
anterior drawer test
performed to determine extent of inversion or eversion injuries, with foot at 90 derees calcaneus is inverted and excessive motion indicates injury to calcaneofibular ligament and possibly the anterior and posteior ligaments
talar tilt test
funcional tests for Lower leg injuries:
walk on toes, walk on heels, etc
single most common injury in athletics, caused by sudden inversion or eversion movements
ankle sprains
most common kind of ankle sprain, result in injury to the lateral ligaments
inversion ankle sprain
occurs with inversion plantar flexion and adduction, cusing stretching of teh anterior taofibular ligament
grade I inversion sprian
ankel sprain with moderate inversion force cauing a great deal of disability with many days of lost time
grade 2 inversion sprain
relatively uncommon but is extrememly disabling, caused by signiicant force resulting in spontaneous sublexation and reduction, causes damage to teh anterior/posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments as well as teh capsule
grade III inversion sprain
represent 5-10% of all ankle sprain
eversion ankle sprain
in an eversion ankle sprain the __ ligament is usually damaged
injury to the distal tibriofemoral joint (anterior/posterior tibulofibular ligament), torn w/ increased external rotation or dorsiflexion, injured in conjuction w/ medial and lateral ligaments
syndesmotic sprain
common in sports and often occurs with sprains or excessive dorsiflexion,
acute achilles strain
occurs with suden stop and go; forceful plantar flexion with knee moving into full extension, comonly seen in athletes over 30 years old, history with chronic inflammation
achilles tendon rupture
when the __ ruptures the athlete will swear they've been kicked in the back of the leg
achilles tendon
occurs in sports with dynamic forces being applied to the ankle, may also be caused by dramatic blow to posterior lateral mallelus, or moderate/severe inversion ankle sprain resulting in tearing of peroneal retinaculum, athletes complain fo snapping in and out of groove with activity
peroneal tendon subluxation/dislocation
caused by direct blow to lower leg (impacting periosteum anteriorly)
shin contusion
contusion of the leg, particularly in the region of the gastrocnemius
muscle contusions
sudden, violent, involuntary, contraction, either clonic (intermittent) or tonic (sustained) in nature
leg cramps and spasms
suseptible to strain near musculotendinous attachment, caused by quick start or stop, jumping
gastrocnemius strain
__ has the highest incidence of fracture, occuring primarily in the middle third
__ fractures occur predminatly in the lower third
4 grades of pain for shin splints:
-pain after activity
-pain before and after, not affecting performance
-pain before, during, and after activity, affecting performance
-pain so severe, performance is impossible
rare acute traumatic syndrome where abnormal swelling occurs due to direct blow or excessive exercise of legs
compartment syndrome
common overuse condition, particulary in those with structural and chiochemical insufficienceies, runners tend to develop in the lower third of lower leg, component of femal athlete traid
stress fracture of tibia or fibula
intracapsular may be referred to as __
joint effusion
swelling within the joint that is caused by synovial fluid and blood is a __
knee joint laxity includes both __
straight and rotary instability
the glide of tibial plateau relative to the femoral condyles
as damage to stabilization structures increases, laxity and translation __
used to assess the integrity of the MCL and LCL respectibely, testing at 0 degrees incorporates capsular testing while testing at 30 degrees flexion isolates the ligaments
valgus and varus stress tests
ACL tests 2:
-drawer test at 90 degrees of flexion
-lachman drawer test
(tibia sliding forward from under the femur is considered a + sign (ACL))
drawer test
ACL test that will not force knee into painul flexion immediatley after injury, reduces hamstring involvment
lachman drawer test
2 tests for PCL sprains
-posterior drawer test
-external rotation recurvatum test
when the knee is flexed at 90 degrees and a posterior force is applied to determine translation posteriorly, + indicates a PCL deficient knee
Posterior drawer test
PCL test done with the athlete is supine, the leg is lifted by the great toe, if the tibia externally rotates and slides posteriorly ther may be a PCL injury and damage to the posterolateral corner of the capsule
external rotation recurvatum test
PCL test where the athlete is supine with both knees flexed to 90 degrees, lateral observation is required to determine extent of posterior sag while comparing birlaterally
posterior sag test
used to determine displaceable miniscal tear, leg is moved into flexion and extension while knee is internally and externally rotated in conjunction with valgus and varus stressing, a + is found when clicking and popping are felt
McMurray's Meniscal Test
meniscal test:
hard downward pressure is applied with rotation, pain indicated meniscal inury
apley's compresion test
meniscal test:
-traction is applied with rotation, pain will occur if there is damage to the capsule or ligaments, no pain will occur if it is meniscal
apleys distraction test
changes in girth can occur due to __, __, and __
atrophy, swelling, and conditioning
used to determine patients perception of pain, stabilitiy and functional performance
subjective rating
must assess walking, running, and turning, and cuttying, co-contraction test, vertical jum[, single leg hop tests, and the duck walk, resistive strength testing
functional examination
-lines which bisect the patella relative to the ASIS and the tibial tuvercle
-normal angle is 10 degrees for males and 15 degrees for females, elevated angles often lead to pathlological conditions assocated with improper patellla tracting
a series of glides and compressions are perfomed with the patella to determine integrity of patella cartilage
patella grinding, compression and apprehension tests
result of severe blow or outward twist
medial collateral ligament sprain (MCL)
result of varus force, generally with the tibia internally rotated, a direct blow is rare, if severe enough damage can also occur to the crucitate ligments, ITC, and meniscus, producing bony fragments as well
lateral collateral ligament sprain
tibia externally rotated and valgus force at the knee, may be linked to inabilityto decelerate valgus and rotational stresses
Anterior cruciate ligament sprain (ACL sprain)
-most at risk during 90 degrees of flexion
-fall on bent knee is most common mechanism
-can also be damaged as a result of a rotational force
posterior cruciate ligamanet (PCL)
if an athlete feels a pop in the back of the knee it may be an __
PCL sprain
the __ meniscus is more commonly injured due to ligamentous attachments and decreased mobility, also more prone to disruption through torsional and valgus forces
caused by direct or indirect trauma (severe pull of tendon)
semi-flexed position with forcible contraction (falling, jumping, or running)
patellar fracture
an apophysitis occuring at the tibial tubercle
begins cartilagenous and develops a bony callus enlarging the turbercle
resolves with aging
osgood schlatter's disease
repeated avulsion of the patellar tendon is a common cause of __
osgood schlatter's disease
the result of excessive pulling on the inferior pole of the patella
larsen johansson disease
caused by jumping or kicking, placing tremendous stress and strain on patellar or quadriceps tendon, sudden or repetitive extension
patellar tendinitis (jumpers or kickers knee)
3 phases for patellar tendinitis:
-pain after activity
-pain during and after
-pain during and after that may become constant
caused by a fall on outstreched arm, fall on the tip of teh shoulder, or direct impact
occurs primarily in teh middle third
clavicular fractures
result of direct impact or force transmitted up through the humerous
scapular fractures
caused by an indirect force, blunt trauma (may cuase displacment) to the clavicle
sternoclavicular sprain
result of direct blow (from any direction), upward force from humerus, can be graded 1-6 depending on severity
acromioclavivular sprain
caused by a forced abduction and or external rotation or a direct blow
glenohumeral joint sprain
caused by a subluxation involves excessive translation of humeral head w/out complete seperation form the joint
acute subluxations and dislocations of the shoulder
__ shoulder dislocation is the result of an anterior force on the shoulder, forced abduction and external rotation
anterior dislocaiton
__ shoulder dislocation occurs due to forced adduction and internal rotation or falling on a extended and internally rotated shoulder
signs and sympotms are a:
flattened deltoid, prominent humeral head in axilla; arm carried in slight abduction and external rotation
anterior shoulder dislocation
signs and sympotms are a:
severe pain and dislability, arm carried in adduction and internal rotation; prominent acromion and coracoid process; limited external rotation and elevation
posterior dislocation
permanent anterior defect of labrum
bankart lesion
cuased by compression of cancellous bonde angainst anterior glenoid rim creating a divot in the humeral head
hill sachs lesion
defect in superior labrum that begins posteriorly and extends anteriorly impacting attachment of long head of biceps on labrum
SLAP lesion
cuased by a powerful contraction of teh biceps, generally occurs near origin of muscule at bicipital groove
biceps brachii rupture
a biceps brachi rupture generally occurs near origin of muscle at __
bicipital groove
5 phases of throwing motion:
-windup phase
-cocking phase
-deceleration phase
-follow through phase
phase of throwing:
-first movement until ball leaves gloved hand
-lead leg strides forward while both shoulders abduct, externally rotate and horizontally abduct
windup phase
phase of throwing:
-hands seperate (achieve max. external rotation) while lead foot come in contact with ground
cocking phase
phase of throwing:
-max external rotation until ball release
-scapula elevates, abducts and rotates upward
phase of throwing:
-point from ball release until max shoulder internal rotation
-eccentric contraction of ext. rotators to decelerate humerus while rhomboids decelerate scapula
deceleration phase
phase of throwing:
-end of motion when athlete is in a balanced position
follow-through phase
injured as a result of a valgus force from repetitive trauma, can also result in ulnar nerve inflammation or wrist flexor tendinitis, overuse flexor/pronator strain, ligamentous sprains; elbow flexion contractures or increasedinstability
ulnar collateral ligament
called tennis elbow:
lateral epicondylitis
caused by repetative microtrauma to insertion of extensor muscles of lateral epicondyle, tendiosis with degeneration of tendon without inflammation
lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)
caused by:
-repeated forceful flexion of wrist and extreme valgus torque of elbow
-may involve pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis and ulnaris, and palmaris longus tendons, can be associated with ulnar nerve neuropathy
medial epicondylitis
caused by:
-high incidence in sports caused by fall on outstreached hand w/ elbow extended or severe twist while flexed
-bones can be displaced backward, forward, or laterally
-distinguishable from fracture because lateral and medial epicondyles are normally aligned with shaft of humerus
dislocation of elbow
caused by:
-fall on flexed elbow or form a direct blow
-can occur in any one or more of the bones
-fall on outstreched hand often fractures humerus above condyles or between condyles
elbow fractures
the __ side of the arm recieves the most blow due to arm blocks
ulnar side
common in youth due to falls and direct blows
forearm fractures
occurs in the lower end of radius or ulna, caused by fall on outstreched hand, forcing radius and ulna into hyperextension
colles fracture
3 major nerves in teh hand
ulnar, median, and radial
__ and __ arteries supply the hand
ulnar and radial
the two arterial arches of the hand __
superficial and deep palmar arches
test for de Quervains's syndrome, athlete makes a fist with thumb tucked inside, wrist is ulnarly deviated, + is pain indicating stenosingin tenosynovitis
finklesteins test
produced by tapping over transverse carpal ligament, tingling, paresthesia over sensory distribution of the median nerve indicates presence of carpal tunnel syndrome
tinel's sign
test for carpal tunnel syndrome, position is held for about 1 min
phalens test
test used to assess ligamentous integrity of joints in hands and fingers, valgus and varus tests are used to test collateral ligaments
valgus/varus and glide stress tests
the most common kind of wrist injury, arises form any abnormal forced movement, falling on hyperextended wrist, violent flexion or torsion, multiple incidents may disrupt blood supply
wrist sprains
occurs through forced hyperextension, falling on outstretched hand
-violent twist or torque of the wrist
-often associated with sprain of UCL
triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury
cuased by force on outstretched hand, compressing scaphoid between radius and second row of carpal bones, often fails to heal due to poor blood supply
scaphoid fracture
synovial cyst (herniation of joint capsule or synovial sheath of tendon), generally appears following wrist strain, occasional pain with lump at site, may feel soft, rubbery or very hard
wrist ganglion
managment of this disease includes aspiration, chemical cauterization with susequent pressure from pad, surgical removal is most effective treatment method
wrist ganglion
the result of blow or compression of bones within hand and fingers
contusion and pressure injureis of hand and fingers
caused by a blow that contacts tip of finer avulsing extensor tendon from insertion, person unable to extend distal end of finger
mallet finger (baseball or basketball finger)
the jones fracture heals __
HARM stand for:
things you should not do with an injruy
Heat, Alcohol, Running, Massage
injury to the tibiofibular syndesmosis ligament, caused by ankle dorsoflexion with external rotation
syndesmotic/high ankle sprain
caused by twisting motion/direct blow to the knee at 45 degrees, complains knee is coming apart
ACL tear
osgood schlaters disease is diagnosed by a __ below the knee
hard bump
if bone follicles in tendon break off into joint
joint mice
used to cushion and disperse weight
deterioration of the cartilage behind the patella, most in females because of Q angle
shoulder dislocations are __% of all dislocations
what makes up the rotator cuff?
-teres minor
causes little league elobw in children and requires tommy johns surgery in adults
UCL sprain of the elbow
__ is a cushion for the ulna, use silly putty for treatment
triangular fibro cartilage complex injury