Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/269

Click to flip

269 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
when coming upon an injury you must make sure to assess the whole situation. this is because __
more than one injury is possible
what are the 2 kinds of evaluations?
-on field
-of field
the primary survey is made of __
ABC's (airway, breathing, conciousness) and vitals
what does HOPS stand for?
History
Observation
Palpation
Special Tests
the part of HOPS where you gain as much information about the athlete and the inury as possible
history
the part of HOPS where you look at the injured area and compare bilaterally
observation
in the observation part of hopes, you compare __
bilaterally
the part of HOPS where you feel the injury
palpatation
the part of HOPS where you check range of motions, neruologic exams, stress test, and functional tests
special tests
evaluation where you check for stability and to see if they can be moved
on field
sudden onset, short duration (resolves quickly) serves biological function
acute pain
slow onset, long duration
chronic pain
pain in the skin, ligaments, muscles, and joints.
somatic pain
results from disease or organ injur, deep, nagging, nausea
visceral pain
referred pain is an example of __
visceral pain
two types of somatic pain
deep, superficial
a pain that is nagging, indicating significant tissue damage
deep somatic pain
a pain that is brief, intense, and sharp
superficial somatic pain
what should you ask in during the history portion of HOPS
-mechanism of injury (MOI)
-PMHx
-where and what kind of pain
What should you look for during observation?
-watch the athlete
-posture
-compare bilaterally
-ecchymosis and effusion
joint swelling
effusion
soft tissue swelling
edema
black and blue discoloration
eccymosis
grinding/grating sensation
crepitus
what does goiniometry measure?
range of motion
a measurement of girth that uses water displaced by a hand or foot
volumetric movement
in palpation you should start __ from the injury site and work __ the area
away, toward
you should first palpatate __ then __
bone, soft tissue
when testing ROM, do __ first, the __
active, passive
an end feel is the __
feeling at the end of motion
what characterizes bone to bone end feels
hard, painless sensations
what characterizes soft tissue end feels?
compression stops further movment
types of end feel over pressure qualities:
1. bone to bone (hard)
2. soft tissue
3 firm
what characterizes firm end feels
tissue stretch
what are two types of stength tests you can do in special tests part of HOPS?
static or dyanmic
stress tests are done on __ and __
ligaments, muscles
types of neurological assesments
dermatomes, myotomes, reflexes
proprioception, genreral movements, and sport specific tests are __
functional tests
walking, jogging, running, figure 8s, and cutting are all forms of __
functional tests
area of skin supplied by cutaneous nerves
dermatome
group of muscles innervated by single nerve group
myotomes
if a test is true, it is done __
correctly
if a test is false it is done __
incorrectly
there are __ cerviacl vertabrae
8
there are __ thoracic vertabra
12
there are __ lumbar vertabrae
5
lowest cost of all the the imaging techniques
radiographs
radiographs have limitations like __
scaphoid fractures
radiographs work because bones are more __ and absorb more __
dense, radiation
when taking a radiograph, you must protect the __
reproductive organs
the 4 ways to interpret radiographs
A-alignment
B-bones
C-cartilage
S-soft tissue
when interpreting radiographs in terms of alignment, there should be __ of the bones and joint surfaces
continuity
when interpreting radiographs in terms of bones the should be uniform __. areas of decreased density will appear __
color, darkened
when interpreting radiographs in terms of cartilage joint spaces should be __
smooth
when interpreting radiographs in terms of soft tissue __ and bones can be seen
swelling within or between soft tissue
a stress radiograph is taken when stress is applied to the joint to maximize __
joint laxity
when X-ray source and detectors rotate around the body, computer determines the density of the tissue, creates 2 dimensional image (slice)
computed tomography (CT) scan
pathologies identified by MRI
-sprains
-fluid
-nerve entrapment
the MRI tube produces a __
magnetic field
in an MRI hydrogen nuclei align with the __
magnetic axis
in an MRI electromagnetic waves cause nuclei to resonate as they absorb __
energy
an MRI has no __
harmful effects
in an MRI contrast can be __
"weighted"
MRI's setbacks are __ and __
claustrophobia
types of metal implants (pacemaker)
studies blood vessels:
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
uses radionuclide Tc-99m that is absorbed by remodeling bone creating a "hot spot"
bone scan
what kind of pathologies are identified by a bone scan?
degenerative disease
bone tumors
stress fractures
sonograms are relativlely __ and __
easy, inexpensive
diagnostic ultrasound identifies __
soft tissue defects
to see internal organs with diagnostic ultrasound, a frequency of __ is used
1-6 MHz
to see superficial structures with diagnostic ultrasound, a frequency of __ is used
7-15 MHz
the tip of the ultrasound device is called a __
piezoelectric transducer
detect pathology in nerves and the muscles they innervate
nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMC
pathologies identified by NCS or EMG
peripheral nerve entrapments
nerve root injury
muscle disease
senses when peripheral nerve is stimulated and muscle activity is detected
NCS
time it takes for the impulse to travel to the muscle
latency
magnitude of the nerves response
amplitude
an emg is __
invasive
an electrode needle is inserted into the muscle and electrical activity within muscle is noted
emg
normal muscle is __ in an EMG
electrically inactive
pathological muscle is __ in an EMG
spontaneous activity or depolarization at rest
Why do we use evidence based practice (EBP) in the diagnsotic process?
-rising medical costs
-insurance companies
the ability of a protocol to produce the intended effects
efficacy
methods or procedures that through research and experience have demonstrated the optimal, most expedient results
best practice
what is the hierarchy of research?
-meta-analysis
-randomized clinical trials
-cohort studies
-case control studies
-case series report
-case report
-expert opinon
clinical exam components should be supported by __
evidence
how often the same results are obtained
reliablility
the extent to which the same examiner produces the same results, how consistently will the SAME examiner get the same results
intraraterer reliability
the extent to which different examiners produces the same results, how consistently DIFFERENT examiners get the same results
interrater reliability
how often do the results correctly identify whether or not the pathology is present
diagnostic accuracy
the measure of how well a certain test does what it is supposed to do
validity
steps to assessing diagnostic accuracy
-identify a population to test
-compare results to diagnostic gold standard
the extent to which a condition is present in a population; can change depending on a group
prevalence
the likelihood that a specific condition is present before the diagnostic test results are known
pretest probability
the highest diagnostic accuracy, generally more expensive, less accessible, slower, invasive, requires more personnel
diagnostic gold standard
best diagnostic accuracy=__
high rate of true +'s and -'s
formula for a positive predictor value
true positive/true positive+false positive
formula for a negative predictor value
true negative/true negative+false negative
sensitivity=__
true positive rate
a tests ability to detect those patients who actually have the disorder relative to the gold standard
sensitivity
specificity=__
true negative rate
a tests ability to detect those patients who don't have the disorder relative to the gold standard
specificity
formula for sensitivity
true positive/true positive+false negative
formula for specificity
true negative/true negative+false positive
quick sumary of how positive and negative finding determine a tests diagnostic usefulness
likelihood ratios
__ explains the shift in the pretest probability that a patient has a condition after obtaining a test result
likelihood ratios
the probability that a condition exisits decreases if the likelihood ratio is __ 1
<
the probability that a condition exisits increases if the likelihood ratio is __ 1
>
__ express the change in our confidence that a condition is present when the test is positive
+ likelihood ratio
what is the formula for LR+?
sensitivity/(1-specificity)
expresses the probability that the pathology is still present even though the test was negative
- likelihood ratio
what is the formula for a - LR?
(1-sensitivity)/specificity
a group of findings taht improve decision making, decrease costs, and improve patient outcomes
clinical decision rules
the disposition of teh body at any one moment
posture
a straight line that passes through the ear lobe, the bodies of the cervical vertebrae, the tip of the shoulder, midway throguht the throax, through the bodies of the lumbar vertebrae, slightly posterior to the hip joint, slightly anterior to the axis of the knee joint, and just anterior to the lateral malleolus
ideal alignment
teh position in which minimum stress is applied to each joint. upright posture is the normal standing posture. if it is correct, minimal muscle activity is needed to maintain that position
correct posture
correct posture can __
-improve performance
-decrease abnormal stresses
-reduce development of pathological conditions
any position that increases the stress to the joints
faulty posture
waht is a normal pelvic angle
30 degres
waht is the most common cause of poor posture?
poor habits
__ casues other joints in the kinetic chain to compensate
postural deviation
when arthokinematic motions of teh GH joint are decreased
adhesive capsulitis
narrowing of the vertebral foramen through which the spinal cord or spinal nerve root pass
stenosis
an ecessive anteiror curvature of teh spine. an exaggeration of teh normal curves found in teh cervical and lumbar spine
lordosis
what are the two types of lordosis
patholgical and exaggerated
characterized by sagging shoulders, medial rotaion of the legs, and the head poking foward. deviation in one part of teh body often leads to deviation in another part of the body in an attempt to maitian the correct center of gravity
pathological lordosis
__ is the most common kind of lordosis
pathological
usually accompanied by tight hip flexors, tensor fasciae latae, and hip flexors, combined with weak abdominals
exaggerated lumbar lordosis
when there is an increased pelvic inclination to approximately 40 degrees, and the thoracolumbar spine exhibits a kyphosis
swayback deformity
an excessive posterior curvature of the spine, an exaggeration of the normal curve found in teh thoracic spine
kyphosis
long rounded curve with decreased pelvic inclination and thoraco-lumbar kyphosis, the trunk is flexed forward and has a decreased lumbar curve
round back
a localized sharp posterior angulation in the thoracic spine
humpback
a decreased pelvic inclination to 20 degrees and a mobile lumbar spine
flat back
a lateral curvature of the spine.
scoliosis
involves bony deformity which is either congenital or acquired
structural scoliosis
may be caused by postural problems, hysteria, nerve root irritatio, inflammation, or compensation caused by leg length descrepancy or contracture in the lumbar spine
nonstructural scoliosis
there is no __ with scoliosis
bony deformity
scoliosis is __ progressive
not
accounts for 75%-85% of all causes of structural scoliosis
idiopathic scoliosis
the scoliotic curve disappears on __
forward flexion
the imaginary line from the ear lobe to the acromion and iliac crest
lateral line of reference
when a plumb line would drop down the 7th cervical vertebrae
posterior line of reference
abd
abduction
act
active
A/A
active/asistive
add
adduction
ADL
activities of daily living
AG
achieving goals
A/P
anterior posterior
AROM
active range of motion
bilateral (both)
BID
twice a day
BF
biofeedback
BP
blood pressure
C1
first cervical
c (with a line on top)
with
CC
chief complaint
CCP
continue current program
c/o
complaint of
cx
cancelled
D/C
discontinue
DOB
date of birth
Dx
diagnosis
ER
external rotation
ext
extention
f
female
flex
flexion
fx
fracture
FWB
full weight bearing
HEP
home exercise program
HP
hot pack
Hx
history
I (circled)
independent
IR
internal rotation
LE
lower exteremity
L1
first lumbar
L (circled)
left
LBP
low back pain
m
male
MMT
manual muscle testing
NC
no change
NWB
non-weight bearing
p (line over it)
after
post op
post operation
PMHx
past medical history
PNF
proprioneuromuscluar facilitation
PRE's
progressive resistance exercises
prn
as needed
PROM
passive range of motion
PT
physical therapy
pt.
patient
PWB
partial weight bearing
qd
every day
R/O
rule out
R (circled)
right
Rx
treatment
s
without
S1
first sacral vertebrae
SI
sacroiliac
SLR
straight leg raises
S/P
status post
STM
soft tissue mobilization
T1
first thoracic vertebrae
TE or Ther. Ex
theraputic exercise
TENS
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
TID
three times daily
Tx
traction
US
ultrasound
WNL
within normal limits
WP
whirlpool
CWP
cold whirlpool
NSAID
nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory drugs
P
pulse
c
continue
what does SOAP stand for?
Subjective
Objective
Assessment
Plan
part of SOAP where you take down everything the patient says
subjective
part of SOAP where you write down everything you see and do
objective
8 categories of objective (SOAP)
A/PROM
grith
strength
sensation
gait
special tests
swelling
soft tissue restrictions
in the assessment part of SOAP, what 2 things are recorded?
long and short term goals, status of player progress
part of soap that describes what the AT is going to do with the patient
plan
the process of determining the priority of treatment
triage
an observable condition that indicates of a disease or injury
sign
the immediate and long-term managment of an injury or illness
disposition
finite measures that are readily reproducible regardless of the indiviual collecting the information
objective data
valuntarily or involuntarily assuming a posture to protect an injured body area, often through muscular spasm
muscle gaurding
an injury that casuses permenant disability or death
catastrophic
a condition existing before birth
congenital
fainting caused by a ransient loss of oxygen supply to the brain
syncope
unexpected and instantaneous death occuring within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms; most often used to describe death cuased secondarily to cardiac failure
sudden death
a hereditary condition of the connectibe tissue, bones, muscles, and ligmaments. over time, this condition results in degeneration of brain functin, cardiac failure, and other visceral problems
marfan syndrome
the presence of multiple unrelated disorders in teh same person at the same time
comorbidity
of gradual onset; with respect to symptoms of an injury or disease having no apparent cause
insidious
injury casued by accumulated microtraumatic stress placed on a structure or body area
overuse syndrome
the gradual and progressive deformation of tissues to adapt to postural changes including immobilization or pathomechanics
tissue creep
the sensation of numbess or tingling often described as a "pins and needles" sensation, caused by compression of or a lesion to a peripheral nerve
parethesia
faking or exaggerating the symptoms of an injury or illness
malingering
fusion of a joint as the result of pathology or surgical design
ankylosed
a research technique that combines the results of multiple studies that have a similar research hypothesis
meta-analysis
a condition not visually apparent to the examiner, indicating the existance of a disease or injury; usually obtainned during the history taking process
symptom
an inflammatory condition involving a bones growth plate (aka osgood schlatter)
apophysitis
inflammation of the bursae, common on patella and olecranon process
bursitis
inflammation of a joints capsule
capsulitis
a bony growth which develops within a muscle following a contusion or strain
myositis/myositis ossificans
inflammation of one or more nerves
neuritis
inflammation of the periosteum
periostitis
describes tendon pathology (3 degrees)
tendinopathy
an inflammation of the synovial sheath surrounding a tendon, more common in hand and feet bcasue small tendos
tenosynovitis
the inflammation of a joints capsule that occurs secondary to prescence of existing inflamation in or around a joint that spereads to synovial membrane
synovitis
when a bony fragment is stable withing the joint or free floating within the joint space
osteochondritis dissecans
the degeneration of a joints articualr surface
arthritis
growth of exraneous bones due to irrecular forces
exstosis
injurying any part of the epiphyseal plate/a direct blow to joint area
epiphyseal injury
caused by a stress that forces the joint beyond its normal anatomical limits
dislocation
a fracture that results from stress that takes the joint beyond its normal anatomical limits
subluxation
a fracture that result of extremly high velocity impact forces thats causes the bone to shatter into multiple pieces
comminuted fracture
a fracture that results form compressive forces applied throught the ling axis of the bone
compacted/compression fracture
a fracture that generally specific to pediatric and adolescent population
greenstick fracture
a fracture in which the line of break occurs obliquly to the axis of teh bone
oblique fracture
fracture that is the result of a rotational force placed on teh shaft of a long bone
spiral fracture
a fracture caused by a direct blow, shear force, or tensile force being applied to the short of a long bone and results in a fracter that crosses the bones axis
transverse fracture
the tearing away of a ligaments or tends body
avulsion
when a bone is subjected to abnormally high levels of streses
stress fractures
having no sensation
anesthesia
skin sensation such as burining, pickling, itching, with no apparent physical cause
hyperthesia
the mildest form of peripheral nerve stretch injury
neurapraxia
a growth of a tumor of nerve tissue
neuroma
body type: slender, thin build, relatively low BMI
ectomorph
body type: medium athletic build, relatively average BMI
mesomorph
stocky build; relatively high BMI
endomorph