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104 Cards in this Set

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the application of psychological principles and research to the enhancement of health, and the prevention and treatment of illness
health psychology
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
health
the number ofhealth years of healthy life that can be expected is at least __ years in mostly developed countries and less than __ is some developing countries
70, 40
control of underage and excess use of alcohol could prevent __ deaths from automobile accidents and other alcohol related injuries
100,000
elimination of public possession of firearms could prevetn __ deaths
35,000
elimination of all forms of tobacco use could prevent __ deaths from cancer, stroke, and heart disease
400,000
better nutrition and exercise programs could prevent __ deaths from heart disease, deabeetes, cancer, and stroke
300,000
a reduction in risky sexual behaviors could prevent __ deaths from sexually transmitted diseases
30,000
full access to immunizations for infectious diseases could prevent __ deaths
100,000
rituals like sorcery, exorcism, or even primitive surgery was used for __ medicine
prehistoric
an ancient medical intervention in which a hole was drilled into the human skull to presumably allow "evil spirits" to escape
trephination
a concept of health proposed by hippocrates that conisdered wellness a state of perfect equilibirum among four basic body fluids, called humors. sickness was believed to be the result of disturbances in the balance of humors
humoral theory
what were the four humors?
blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm
according to the humoral theory, to maintain a proper balance, a person had to follow a healthy lifestyle that included __, __, __, and the avoidance of __
exercise, sufficient rest, a good diet, excesses
a greek physician who learned about health and disease by studiing animals with severe injries of roman gladiators
Claudius Gladen
__ expanded the humoral theroy of disease by developing an elaborate system of pharmacology that physicians followed for almost 1500 years
Galen
founded on the prinicple that interanal harmony is essential for good health
traditional oriental medicine (TOM)
the oldest knwon medical system in teh world, having orginiated in india around the 6th century
ayurveda
epidemic diseases like the two great outbursts of plague were believed to e a sign of __
gods wrath
a disease that spreads rapidly among man individuals in a community at teh same time
epidmeic
a disease that affects people over a large geographical area
pandemic
the philosophy viewpoint that mind and body are separate entities that do not interact
mind-body dualism
the theroy that the origins of specific diseases are found in the interanl oragans, musculature, and skeletal system of the human body
anatomical theory
formulated in the nineteenth century, the theory that disease is the result of abnormalities in body cells
cellular theory
unitl the nineteenth century, scholars believed in __, teh idea that living organisms can be formed from nonliving matter
spontaneous generation
the idea that bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that invade body cells cause them to malfunction
germ theory
a mondel of health that maintains that illness always has a biologiacl cause
biomedical model
the three distinguishing features of the biomedical model
disease is the result of a pathogen, considers mind and body separate and autonomous entities that interact minimally, and that health is the absence of disease
the biomedical model embraces __, the view that complex phenomena derive ultimately from a single primary factor
reductionism
a virus, bacterium, or some other microorganism that causes a particualr disease
pathogen
an outdated branch of medicine that focused on teh diagnosis that focused on the diagnosis and treatment of physical diseases caused by faulty psychological processes
psychosomatic medicine
a model of psychosomatic medicine stating that each physical diseaseis the outcome of a fundamental or nuclear, psychological conflict
nuclear conflict
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and biomedical science in promoting healtha nd treating disease
behavioral medicine
the scientific study of the causes or origins of specific diseases
etiology
the scientific study of observable behvaior, and they empasized the role of learing in teh acquisitoin of most human behavior
psychology
the four goals of psychology
to study scientifically that causes or origins of specific diseases, to promote health, to prevent and treat illness, to promote public health policy and the improvement of the healthcare system
health psychologists are primarliy interested in the psycological, behavioral, and social origins of disease. they investigate why people engage in __ like smoking or unsafe sex
health compromising behaviros
health psychologists consider ways to et people to engage in __ like exercising regularly and eating nutritious foods
health enhancing behaviros
the viewpoint that health and other behaviors are determined by teh interaction of biological mechanisms, psychological processes, and socail influences
biopsychosocial (mind-body) perspective
theoryretical perspective that focuses on age-related aspects of health and illness
life-course perspective
this perspective would consider for example how a preganat womans malnutrition, smoing, or sue of psychoactive drugs would affect her childs lifelong development (like being born with low birth weight_
life course perspective
a group of people who, because they were born at about the same time, experience similar hisotrical and social conditions
birth cohort
theoretical perspective that focuses on how social and cultural factors contribute to health and disease
sociocultural perspective
theoretical perspective that focues on gender-specific health problems and gender barriers to health care
gender perspective
the enduring behaviors, values, and customs that a group of people have developed over the years and transmitted from one generation to the next
culture
large gropus of people who tend to have similar values and expereiences because they share certain characteristics
ethnic groups
a measure of several variables, including income education and occupation
socioeconomic status
__ are generally the most vulnerable to health problems
men
the viewpoint that nature is best understood as a hierarchy of systems in which each system is simultaneously composed of smaller subsystems and larger, interrelated systems
systemss theory
psychologists who generally focus on health promoting interventions, are licensed for independent practice in areas such as clinical and counseling psychoogy
clinical health psychologists
a form of faulty reasoning in which our expectations prevent us from seeing alternative explanations for our observations
belief bias
the scientific sutryd of teh frequqency, distribution, and causes of a particular disease or other health outcome in a population
epidemiology
research method in which researchers observe and record participants behaviors, often forming hypotheses that are later tested more systematically; includes case studies, interviews and surveys, and observational studies
descriptive study
a descriptive study in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing general principles
case study
a questonnaire used to ascertain the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a group of people
survey
a non-experimental research method in which a researcher observes and records the behavior of a research participant
obersvational study
a statistical measure of teh strength and direction of teh relationship between two variables, and thus of how well one predicts the other
correlational coefficient
a graphed cluster of data points, each of which represents the values of two variables in a descriptive study
scatterplot
the factor in an experiment that an experimenter manipulates; the variable whose effect is being studied
independent variable
the behavior or mental process in an experiment that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable; the variable that is being measured
dependent variable
assigning research participants to groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences among the groups
random assignment
a form of bias in which the outcome of a study is influenced either by the researchers expectations or by teh study participants' expectations
expectancy effects
a technique designed to prevent oberver- and participant- expectancy effects in whcih neither the reseacher nor the participants know the true pupose of the study or which participants are in each condition
double blind study
a study comparing two groups that differ naturally on a specific variable of interest
quasi-experiment
a study comparing representative groups of people of various ages on a particular dependent variable
cross-sectional study
a study in which a single group of people is observed over a long span of time
longitudinal study
the amount of variation in a trait among individuals that can be attributed to genes
heritability
what kind of studies allow researchers to get around teh problem of similar enviornments in twin studies?
adoption studies
as a measure of health, the number of cases of a specific illness, injury, or disability in a given group of people at a given time
morbidity
as a measure of health, the number of deaths due to a specific cause in a given group of people at a given time
mortality
the number of new cases of a disease or condition that occur in a specific population within a defined time interval
incidence
the total number of diagnosed cases of a disease or condition that exist at a given time
prevalance
what three fundamental objectives do epidemiologists have?
pinpoint the etiology of a particular disease in order to generate hypotheses, evaluate the hypotheses, test the effectiveness of specific preventive health interventions
a backward-looking study in which a group of people who have a certain disease or condition are compared with a group of people who are free of the disease or condition, for the purpose of identifying background risk factors that may have contributed to the disease or condition
retrospective study
relates genetic, metabolic, and biochemical factors to epidemiological data on disease incidence and prevalaecnce, also promises to improve resaerchers abiity to pinpoint the casues of human disease
molecular epidemiology
a forward looking longitudinal study that begins with a healthy group of subjects and follows teh development of a particular disease in that sample
prospective study
a true experiement that tests the effects of one independent variable on inidivduals (single-subject design) or on groups of individuals (community field trials)
randomized clinical trial
where researchers compare people in one comunity to those in another
community field trail
a quantitative technique that combines the results of many studies examining the same effect or phenomenon
meta anlysis
a statistical indicator of the likelihood of a causal relationship between a particualr health risk factor and a health outcome; computed as teh ratio of the incidence (or prevalance) of a health condition in a group exposed to the risk factor to the its icidence (or prevalence) in a group not exposed to the risk factor
relative risk
what conditions must be met in order to infer a cause and effect relationship between a risk factor and a disease (6)
the evidence must be consistent, it must have been there before the disease appeared, the relationship makes sense, there is a does reponse relationship between the risk factor and disease, the strength of association must suggest causality, and the incidence or prevalance must drop when teh risk factor is removed
systematic associations between a particular independent variable, like cigarette smoking, and a particular dependent varialble such as breast cancer
dose-response relationships
According to the text, complete health involves which three domains?
physical, psychological, social
The belief that disease was caused by microscopic organisms and should be treated by surgery and immunization was a product of:
the nineteenth century
________ is credited with proposing the first rational explanation of why people get sick.
Hippocrates
In the early 1970s, the interdisciplinary field of ___________ began to explore the role of learned behaviors in health and disease.
behavioral medicine
According to __, health is determined by: the endocrine system, immune system, and other biological systems of the body.
systems theory
The ___________ perspective considers how the enduring behaviors, values, and customs of a group of people contribute to health and disease.
sociocultural
The ___________ perspective maintains that health and disease must be explained in terms of multiple contexts.
biopsychosocial
______ published the first complete study of the internal organs of the human body.
Vesalius
_____ first advanced Sigmund Freud's theory that some diseases could be caused by individual psychological conflicts.
Franz Alexander
_________ psychology is a relatively new field that encourages psychologists to devote more research attention to optimal, healthy human functioning.
Positive
_______ is best known for his beliefs that the mind and body are autonomous processes.
Descartes
The central feature of scientific inquiry is:
critical thinking
The statistical measure of the relationship between two variables is expressed as a:
correlation coefficient.
Which is an incorrect statement about correlation research?
a. There can be no causation without correlation.
b. There can be no correlation without causation.
c. Correlations identify relationships that later may be subject to experimental study.
d. The relationship between two negatively correlated variables can either be weak or strong.
there can be no correlation without causation
The _________ is the behavior or mental process in an experiment that may change in response to manipulations of the __________.
dependent variable; independent variable
If you were born in 1980, you share a(n) ____ with others born in 1990.
cohort
Inadvertently selecting research participants who do NOT represent the population of interest is the result of a(n):
c. sampling error.
The best way to prevent observer-and participant-expectancy effects is to conduct a:
b. double-blind study.
The gold standard of biomedical research is the:
b. randomized clinical trial.
The study of Darryl Kile and his sudden death is an example of a(n) _____ study.
case
The research method that compares a group of people who have a certain disease or condition with a group of people who do NOT have the disease or condition is the:
c. retrospective study
A quasi experiment employs a(n) _____ variable.
subject