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210 Cards in this Set

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the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the life span
lifespan development
lifespan development takes a __ approach and focuses on __ development
scientific, human
development lasts from __
conception until death
T/F one single period governs all development
FALSE
development involving the body's phsycal makeup, including teh brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and teh need for food, drink, and sleep
physical development
development invovling the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a persona behavior
cognitive development
examine learning, memory, probelm-solving, and intelligence
cognitive developmentalists
development involving the ways that the enduring characterisitcs that differntiate one person from another change over the life span
personality development
the way in which individuls interactions iwth others and their social relathionships grow, change, and remain stable over teh course of life
social development
how long is the prenatal period?
conception to birth
how long is the infancy and toddlerhood period?
birth to 3
how long is the preschool period
3-6
how long is the middle childhood period?
6-12
how long is the adolescent period?
12-20
how long is the you adulthood period?
20-40
how long is the middle adulthood period?
40-60
how long is the late adulthood period?
60-death
a shard notion of reality that is widely accepted but is a function of society and culture at a given time
social construction
time periods are __
social constructions
there are __ in the timing of events in peoples lives
individual differnces
a group of people born at around the same time in teh same place
cohort
cohort effects are an example of __
history-graded influnces
biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment
history-graded influences
biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of when or where they are raised
age-graded influences
the social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual depending on such variables as ethnicity, social class, and subcultural membership
sociocultural-graded influences
specific, atypical events that occur in a particular persons life at a time when such events do not happen to most people
non-normative life events
gradual development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels
continuous change
development that occurs in distinct steps or stages with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qulaitatively different from behavior at earlier stages
discontinuous change
a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for develpoment to proceed normally
critical period
a point in development when organisms are particiularlly suseptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences
senstive period
traits, abilities and capacities that are inherited form ones parents
nature
the predetermined unfolding of genetic information
maturtation
the environemtal influences that shape behavior
nuture
explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest providing a framework for understanding the relationships amoung an organized set of facts or principles
theories
the approach that states behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are generally beyond peoples awarness and control
psychodynamic perspective
the theory propsed by Freud that suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior
psychoanalyitc theory
according to Freud, a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure or gratification is focused on a particular biological function and body part
psychosexual development
a part of the personailty about which a person is unaware (Freud)
unconscious
the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personatliy that is present at birth (freud)
id
the part of personality that is rational and reasonable (Freud)
ego
part of persnoality that represents a persons conscience, incorporationg distictions between right and wrong
superego
the approach that encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandign of one another, as wewll as in our knowledge and understanding of ouselves as members of society
psychosocial development
father of psychosocial development
erik erickson
the approach that suggest that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the enviornment
behavioral perspective
a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response
classical conditioning
a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with postivie and negative consequences
operant conditioning
a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing teh incidence of unwanted ones
behavior modification
learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model
social-cognitive theory
the process y which a behavior is followed by a stimulus that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated
reinforcement
the introduction of an unpleasant or painful stimulus or the removal of a desirable stimulus, will decrease the robability that a preceding behavior will occur in the future
punishment
the approach that focuses on teh processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
cognitive perspective
the model that seeks to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information
information processing approaches
the approach that examines cognitive development through the lens of brain processes
cognitive neuroscience approaches
considers cognition as made up of different types of individual siklls
neo-Piagetian theory
the theory that contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior
humanistic theory
the theory that conisders the relationship between individuals and their physical cognitive, personatily and social worlds
contextual prespective
the perspective suggesting that levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals
bioecological approach
what are the levels of the bioecological approach?
microsystem, mesosytem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
what level of the bioecological approach is this?
the everyday, immediate environment of childrens daily ives
microsystem
what level of the bioecological approach is this?
connects the various aspects of the microsystem. binds children to parents, studenst to teacher, employees to bosses, friends to friends.
mesosystem
what level of the bioecological approach is this?
represents broader inluences: societal institutions such as local government, the community, schools, places of worship, and the local media
exosystem
what level of the bioecological approach is this?
represents the larger cultural influences on an indivudal, including society in generaltypes of governments, religious and plitical value systems, and other, broad encompassing factors
macrosystem
what level of the bioecological approach is this?
underlies each of the precious systems. involves the way the passage of times including hisotrical events
chronosystem
the bioecological approach emphasizers the __
interconnectedness of the influences on development
the dominant western philosophy that emphasizes personal indentity, uniquenness, freedom, and the worth of the individual
individualism
the notion that the well-being of teh group is more important than that of the indivdual
collectivism
the approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture
sociocultural theory
the theory that seeks to identify behavior that is a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors
evolutionary perspective
sociocultural theroy emphasizes that development is a ___ between the poeple ina childs environment and teh child
reciprocal transaction
the field that examines the ways in which our biological makeup influences our behavior
ethology
studies the effects of heredity on beavior
behavioral genetics
the process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled, techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data
scientific method
broad explanations and predictions about phenomena of interest
theories
what are the three major steps of the scientific method
1. identifying questions of interest, 2 formulating an explanation, 3. carrying out research that either lends support to the explanation or refutes it
a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested
hypothesis
research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists
correlational research
research designed to discover causal relationships between various factors
experimental research
the strength and idrection of a relationship between two factors is represnted by a mathematical score that ranges from 1.0- -1.0
correlation coefficient
indicates that as teh value of one factor increases, it can be predicted that teh value of the other will also increase
positive correlation
informs us that as teh value of one factor increases, the value of the other factor declines
negative correlation
a type of correlationsal study in which some naturally occuring behavior is observed without intervention in the situation
naturalistic obervation
studies that involve extnensive, in-depth interview with a particular indivual or small groups of individuals
case studies
a type of study where a group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic
survey research
research that focuses on teh relationship between physiological processes and behavior
psychophysiological methods
a method that borows from anthropology and is used to investigate cultural questions
ethnography
where researchers choose particular settings of interest and seek to carefully describe in narrative fashion waht is occurring and why
qualitative research
uses electrodes placed on the skull to record electrical activity in teh brain
electroenecphalogram (EEG)
a computer constructs an image of teh brain by cominign thousands of individal xrays taken at slightly different angles
computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan
provides a detailed three-dimensional computer-generated image of brain activiy by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the brain
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
a process in which an investigator called an experimenter, devises two different experiences for participants
experiment
the variable that researchers manipulate in an experiement
independent variable
the variable that researchers measure to see if it changes as a result of the experimental manipulation
dependent variable
when participants are assigned to different experimental group sor conditions puerly on teh basis of chance
random assignement
the group of aprticipants chosen for the experiment
sample
a research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting
field study
a research investigationconducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to gold events constant
labrotory study
research designed specifically to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge
theoretical research
research meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems
applied research
research in which the behavior of one or more participants in a stdy is measured as they age
longitudianal study
research in which people of different agges are compared at the same point in time
cross-sectional research
reaserach in which reserachers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time
sequential studies
zthe new cell formed by teh process of fertilization
zygote
the basic unit of genetic information
genes
the substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of every cell in the body and how it will function
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
rod shaped portions of DNA that are organized in 23 pairs
chromosomes
wins who are genetically identical
monozygotic twins
twins who are produced when two seperate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time
dizygotic twins
the one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are presnet
dominant trait
a trait within an organism that is present, but is not expressed
recessive trait
the underlying comination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism
genotype
an observable trait; the trait that actually is seen
phenotype
inheriting from parents similar gens for a given trait
homozygous
inheriting from parents different forms of a gene for a given trait
heterozygous
inheritance in which a combination of multiple gene pairs is responsible for teh porduction of a particular trait
polygenic inheritence
genes that are considered recessibe and located only on the X chromosome
X-linked genes
the study of the effects of herdity on behavior
behavioral genetics
when genes, for no reason, spontaneously chagne their form
spontaneous mutation
a disorder produced by teh presence of an extra chomosome on teh 21st pair; once referred to as monogolism
fragile X syndrome
a blood disorder that gets its name form teh shape of the red blood cells in those who have it
sickle cell anemia
a disorder that produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death; there is no treatment
tay-sachs disease
a disorder resulting from the presence of an extra X chromosome that produces underdeveloped genitals, extreme height, and enlarged breasts
klinefelters syndrome
the discipline that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders
genetic counseling
a chart contaiing enlarged photos of each of teh chromosomes
karyotype
combines a blood test and ultrasound sonography in teh 11th to the 13th week of prgnancy and can identify chomosomal abnormalities and other disorders
first trimester screen
a process in whcih high frequency sound waves scan teh mothers womb to produce an image of teh unborn baby, whose size and shape can then be assessed
ultrasound sonography
a test used to find genetic defescts that involves taking smaples of hairlike material that surrounds the embryo
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fletus
amniocentesis
patterns of arousal and emotionality that represnet consistent and enduring characterisitcs in an individual
temperament
the determination of traits by a combination of both genetic environmental factors in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed
multifactorial transmision
the degree of emotional stability an individual characteristically displays
neuroticsm
the degree to which a person seeks to be with others, to behave in an outgoing manner, and generally to be sociable
extroversion
the process by which a sperm and an ovum-the male and female gametes, respectively-to join to form a single new cell
fertilization
the potential degree of variability in the expression of a trait due to environemntal conditions
reaction range
chorionic villus sampling can be done after the __ week
10th
amniocentesis can be done after __ weeks
15
embryoscopy examines the embryo or fetus during the first __ weeks of pregnancy
12
fetal blood sampling is performed after __ weeks of pregnancy
18
used to detect abnormalityes in teh first trimester of pregnancy. involves high frequency transvaginal probes and digital image processing. can detect more than 80 percent of all malformations during the 2nd trimester
sonoembryology
a monozygotic twin has close to __% chance of developing schizophrenia when the other twin develops the disorder
50
a dizygotic twin has close to __% chance of developing schizophrenia when the other twin develops the disorder
17
the first and shortest stage of the prenatal period, which takes place during the first 2 weeks following conception
germinal stage
a conduit between teh mother and fetus providing nourishment and oxygen via teh umbilical cord
placenta
the period from 2-8 weeks following fertilization during which significant growth occurs in teh major organs and body systems
embryonic stage
the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth
fetal stage
a developing child, from 8 weeks after conception until birth
fetus
when the zygote is firmly secured to the wall of the mothers uterus it is called an __
embryo
the outer layer of the embryo, will form skin, hair, teeth, sense organs and the brian and spinal cord
ectoderm
teh inner layer of the embryo produces digestive system, liver, pancreas, and respiratory system
enoderm
between the ectoderm and endoderm, forms muscles bones, blood, and circulatory systems
mesoderm
the inability to concieve after 12-18 months of trying to become pregnant
infertility
a process of fertilization in which a man's sperm is placed directly into a womans reproductive tract by a physician
artifical inseminatoin
a procedure in which a womans ova are removed from her ovaries and a mans sperm are used to fertilize the ova in a laboratory
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
the most common type of artifical inseminatoin
intracervical insemination
when sperm is deposited into the uterus after being "washed" a process that concentrates sperm in a small amount of fluid
intrauterine insemination
occurs when the embryo detaches from the wall of the uterus and is expelled beore the child can survive outside the womb
miscarriage
some __% of pregnancies end in miscarriage
15-20
when a mother chooses to terminate pregnancy
abortion
a factor that produces a birth defect
teratogen
a disorder caused by teh pregnant mother consuming substantial quantities of alcohol during pregnancy, potentially resulitng in mental retardation and delayed growth in the child
fetal alcohol syndrome
a condition in which children display some, although not all of the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome due to the mothers consumption of alcohol during pregnancy
fetal alcohol effects
the term used for newborns
neonates
called flase labor
braxton hicks contractions
when teh uterine contractions intially occur around every 8-10 min and last about 30 seconds
1rst stage of labor
the contrctions occur more frequently and last longer
2nd stage of labor
contractions may occur every 2 minutes and last almost 2 mintues
last stage of labor
when the first stage of labor ends, teh contractions reach their gratest intensity, a period known as __
transition
the __ stage of labor is the longest
1rst
typcially, labor takes __ hours for firstborn children
16-24
during the __ stage of labor, which typically lasts around 90 minutes, the baby's head proceeds further with each contraction increasing ithe size of teh vaginal opening
2nd
because the area between the vagina and rectum must stretch, an incision called an __ is sometimes made to increase the size of teh opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass
episiotomy
the second stage of labor ends when __
the baby has completely left teh mothers body
in teh __ stage of labor, the childs umbilical cord and placenta are expelled form teh mother
3rd
the __ stage of labor is the quickest
3rd
a standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns
apgar scale
a restiction of oxygen to the baby, lasting a few minutes during the birth process which can produce cognitive defects
anoxia
close physical and emotional contact between parent and child during the period immediately following birth
bonding
infants who are born prior to 38 weeks after conception
preterm infants
infants who weigh less than 2500 g (around 5 1/2 pounds) at birth
low-birthweight infants
infants who, because of delayed fetal growth, weigh 90 percent or less of teh average weight of infants of teh same gestational age
small-for-gestational-age infants
infants who weight less than 1250 g (around 2.25 lbs) or regardless of weight have been in teh womb less than 30 weeks
very-low-birthweight infants
the point at which an infant can survive prematurely to about 22 weeks
age of viability
infants still unborn 2 weeks after the mothers due date
postmature infants
a brith in which the baby is surgically removed from teh uterus, rather than traveling thorugh the birth canal
cesarean delivery
a device that measures the baby's heartbeat during labor
fetal monitor
the delivery of a child who is not alive, occurring in fewer than 1 delivery in 100
stillbirth
death within the first year of life
infant mortality
unlearned, organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in teh presence of certain stimuli
reflexes
the decrase in resonse to a stimulus taht occurs after repeated presntations of teh same stimulus
habituation
different degrees of sleep and wakefullness through which newborns cycle, ranging from deep sleep to great agitation
states of arousal
are involuntary reactions to a particular stimulation
neonatal reflexes
reflexes that are too strong, too weak, or absent, may indicate __
neurological deficits
stepping, babinski, palmar grasp, and moro are all examples of __
refexes
__ and __ are reflexes that enable a child to feed
rooting, sucking
the idea that people or things exist even if they cannot be seen
object concept
when is the object permanance task usually accomplished?
8-12 months
when is A not B error typically accomplished?
12-18 months
when is the invisibility displacement task usually accoplished by?
18-24 months
newborns __ salt, but over the first __ months they develop a preference for it
dislike, 3-4
popular method of birthing that uses breathing techniques and relaxation training
lamaze birthing techniques
sometimes known as "husband-coached childbirth" is based on teh principle that childbirth should be natural, without medication or medical interventions
bradley method
a new, but increasingly popular, technique. involves a form of self-hypnosis during delivery that produces a sense of peace and calm, thereby reducing pain
hypnobirthing
physicians who specialize in delivering babies, have been teh childbirth attendants of choice
obstetricians
most often nurses specializing in childbirth that are used primarily for preganancies with no expectations
midwife
involves truning in teh direction of a stimulus near the mouth
rooting reflex
a greenish-black metrial that is the remnant of the neonates days as a fetus
meconium
the yellowish tinge to their bodies and eyes because their liver does not function efficiently
neonatal jaundice
3 ways that genes can influence the environment
active correlation, passive correlation, evocative correlation
a way that genes can influence the environment: shy child seeks solitary activities
active correlation
a way that genes can influence the environment: athletic parents create opportunities for children to play sports
passive correlation
a way that genes can influence the environment: a smiley baby gets more social stimulus
evocative corrleation