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327 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the scientific study of the actions of drugs and their effects on a living organism
the study concerned with drug-induced changes in the functioning of cells in the nervous system
emphasizes drug induced changes in mood, thinking, and behavior
concerned with identifying chemical substances that act on teh nervous system to alter behavior that is disturbed because of injury
referring to the specific molecular changes produced by a drug when it binds to a particular target site or receptor
drug action
the widespread alterations in physiological or psychological functions due to the molecular changes caused by drug actions
drug effects
when the drug-receptor interaction produces desired physical or behavioral changes
therapeutic effects
all other effects that are not theraputic caused by drugs
side effects
those effects based on teh physical and biochemical interactions of a drug with a target site in living tissue
specific drug effects
drug effects that are based not on the chemical activity of a drug-receptor interaction, but on certain unique characterisitcs of teh individual
nonspecific drug effects
a pharmacologically inert compound administered to an individual
an experiment in which neither the patient nor the observer knows what treatment the patient has recieved
double blind experiement
the amount of a drug in teh blood that is free to bind at specific target sits to elicit drug action
what 5 factors consitute teh pharmacokinetic component of drug action?
routes of administration, absorption and distribution, binding, inactivation, excretion
kind of pharmacokinetic component of drug action: how and where a drug is administered determines how quickly and how completely the drug is absorbed into the blood
routes of administration
kind of pharmacokinetic component of drug action: because a drug rarely acts where it initially contacts the body, it must pass through a variety of cell membranes and enter teh blood plasma, which transports the drug to virtually all of teh cells in teh body
absorption and distribution
kind of pharmacokinetic component of drug action: once in teh blood plasma, some drug molecules move to tissues to bind to active target sites (receptors)
occurs as a result of metabolic processes in teh liver. the amount of drug in teh body at any one time is dependent on teh dynamci blance between absorption and inactivation
kind of pharmacokinetic component of drug action: when teh liver metaolites are eliminated from the body with teh urine or feces
type of drug administration method:the most popular route for taking durgs because it is safe, self-administered, and econmical, and it avoids the complications and discomfrot of injection methods
oral administration
movement of a drug from teh site of administration to teh blood circulation is called __
an evolutionarily beneficial function because potentially armful chemicals and toxins that are ingested pass via the portal vein to the liver where they are cehmically altered by a variety of enzymes before passing tot he heart for ciruculation throughout the body
first-pass metabolism
type of drug administration method: requries the placement of a drug filled suppository in teh recturm, where teh supository coating gradually melts or dissolves, releasing teh drug to be absorbed into the blood
rectal administration
type of drug administration method: teh most rapid and accurate methodof drug administration in that a precise quanitity of teh agent is placed directly into the blood and passage through cell memranes is eliminated
type of drug administration method: an alternative to teh IV procedure, provides teh advantage of slower, more even absorptoin over a period of time
type of drug administration method: most common route of administration for small alabroatory animals
type of drug administration method: when a drug is injected ust below teh skin
type of drug administration method: used to treat asthma attacks, allows drugs to be absorbed into the blood by passing through the lungs. (very rapid because the area of teh pulmonary absorbing surfaces is large and rich with capillaries)
the method preferred for self-administeration in cases when oral absorption is too slow and much of the active drug is destroyed before it reaches teh brain
type of drug administration method: when drugs are applied to teh mucous embranes, such as teh conjunctiva of the eye, the oral cavity, nasopharynx, vagina, colon, and urethra generally provides local drug effects
causes local efects such as releving nasal congestion and treating allergies, but can also have suystemtic effecs, in which case the drug moves across a single epithelial cell layer into the blood stream, bybassing the first-pass metabolism
intranasal administration
type of drug administration method: used with skin patches, provides controlled and sustained delivery of drug at a pre-programed rate
refers to the application of deoxyribonucleic acid, which encodes a specific protein to a particular target site to increase or block expression of the gene product to correct a clinical condition
gene therapy
drugs that have an effect on thinking, mood, and behavior
psychoactive drugs
type of drug administration method:
advantage: safe; self administered; economical not needle related complications Disadvantage: slow and highly variable absorption; subject to first pass metabolism; less predictable blood levels
type of drug administration method:
advantage: most rapid; most accurate blood concentration Disadvantage: overdose danger; cannot be readily reversed; requires sterile needles and medical technique
type of drug administration method:
advantage: slow and even absorption disadvantage: localized irriation at the site of injection; needs sterile equipment
type of drug administration method:
advantage: slow and prolonged absorption disadvantage: variable absorption depending on blood flow
type of drug administration method: advantage: large absorption surface; very rapid onset; no injeciton equipment needed disadvantages: irritation of nasal passages; inhaled small particles may damage lungs
type of drug administration method: advantages: localized action and effects; easy to self-administer disadvantages: may be absorbed into general circulation
type of drug administration method: advantages: controlled and prolonged absorption disadvantages: local irritation; useful only for lipid soluble drugs
type of drug administration method: advantage: bypasses blood brain barrier; very rapid effects on CNS disadvantages: not reversible; needs trained anesthesiologist; possible nerve damage
complex lipid molecules that have a negatively cahrged region at one end and two uncharged lipid tails
drugs with high lipid solubility move through cell membranes by __, leaving the water int eh blood or stomach juices and entering the lipid layers of teh membranes
passive diffusion
the difference in concentration of membranes on either side of a membrane
concentration gradient
once way to predict the relative rate of mevement of a drug through cell membranes is to estimate its lipid solubility using its __
partition coefficient
the extent of ionization depends on two factors:
the relative acidity/alkalinity of teh solution, the intrinsic property of teh molecule (pKa)
a clear, colorless liquid that fills teh subarachnoid space that surrounds the entire bulk of teh brain and spinal cord and also fills teh hollow spaces and their interconnecting channels as well as teh centrally located cavity that runs longitudinally through the length of the spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid
CSF is manufactured by the __
choroid plexus
the blood brain barrier is __ permeable
a barrier, unique to women, found betwen teh blood circulation of a pregnant mother and that of her fetus
blacental barrier
agents that induce developmental anormalities in teh fetus
the brain is most sensative to teratogens __ days after fertilization
the binding of a drug to inactive sites
depot binding
drug clearance from teh blood usually occurs expontentially and is referred to as __
first order kinetics
when a constant fraction (50%) of free drug in teh blood is removed during each time interval
exponential elimination
rapid binding to depots before reaching target means __ onsets and __ effects
slower, reduced
high binding means __ free drug, so some people seem to need __ doses
less, higer
low binding means __ free drug, so these individuals seem more sensative
competition among drugs for depot binding sites means __ than expected blood levels of the displaced drug possibly causing greater side effects, even toxicity
when teh bound drug is not metabolized, the drug __
remains in teh body for prolonged action
binding to deports follows the rapid action at tragets means __ of drug action
rapid termination
__ determines the time needed to reach the steady state plasma level
a drugs half life
the desired blood concentration of drug achieved when teh absorption/distribution phase is equal to the metabolism/exretion phase
steady state plasma level
drug molecules are cleared at a constant rate regardless of drug concentration; graphically represented by a straight line
zero-order kinetics
a kind of biotransformation which involve nonsynthetic modificatin of the drug molecule by oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis
phase I
a kind of biotransformation in which modifications are synthetic reactions that require the combination of the drug with some small molecule such as glucuronide, sulfate, or methyl groups
phase II
an increase in a particular liver enzyme
enzyme induction
when drugs directly inhibit the actino of enzymes that reduces the metabolism of other durgs taken at the same time that are metabolized by teh same enzyme
enzyme inhibition
occurs for durgs that share a metabolic system. because the number of enzyme molecules is limited, an elevated concentration of either dru reuces the metabolic rate of teh secnod causing potentially toxic levels
drug competition
teh effects of a drug are dtermined by (2)
how much drug reaches target sites, how quickly it reaches those
__ determines both onset and duration of drug action
route of administration
oral and rectal routes of adminitration are __ because they involve teh gastroinetinal tract; all other methods are called __
enteral, parenteral
drugs that are __ tend to remain nonionized (lipid soluble) in acidic body fulids. drugs that are __ are more ionized in teh acidic stomach fluid so they are absorbed less
weak acids, weak bases
the most important type of liver enzyme for tranforming psychotropic drugs
cytochrome P450
the study of physiological and biochemical interactin of drug molecules with target tissue that is responsible for teh ultimate effects of a drug
large protein molecules located on teh surface of or within cells, are the initial sites of action of biologically active agents such as neurotransmitters, hormones, and durgs
any molecule that binds to a receptor with some slectivity
molecules that have teh best chemical "fit" (affinity) that attach most readily to a receptor
receptor agonists
molecules that do not only produce no cellular effect after binding, but by binding to the receptor and prevent an "active" ligand from binding
receptor antagonists
molecules that demonstrate effiacy that is less than that of full agonists but more than that of an antagonist at a given receptor
partial agonists
molecules that bind to a receptor, they initiate a biological action but it is an action that is opposite to that produced by an agonist
inverse agonists
long term regulation when receptor numbers increase
up regulation
when receptors are reduced in number, reflects compensatory changes after prolonged absence of receptor agonists or chronic activation recpecitvely
down regulation
shows that with increasing doses, the effect increases in a linear fashion until the maximum effect is reached
dose-response curve
the absolute amount of drug necessary to produce a specific effect
theraputic index = __
dose required to produce toxic effect in 50% of individuals (TD50)/dose that is effective for 50% of individuals (ED50)
molecules that compete with agonists to bind to receptors but fail to initiate an intracellular effects thereby reducing the effects of the agonists
competative antagonists
drugs that reduce the effects of agonists in ways other than competing for the receptor
noncompetitive antagonists
involves two drugs that act in two distinct ways but interact in such a way that they reduce each other's effectiveness in teh body
physiological antagonism
if the outcome equals the sum of the two idividual effects of a drug
additive effects
refers to the situation in which teh combination of two drugs prduces efects that are greater than teh sum of their individual effects
a diminished response to drug administration after repeated exposure to the drug
when development of tolerance to one drug diminishes the effectiveness of a second drug
when tolerance develops during a single administration
acute tolerance
occurs when repeated use of a drug reduces the amount of that drug that is available at the target tissue
metabolic tolerance (drug disposition tolerance)
occurs when changes in nerve cell function compensate for continued presence of the drug
pharmacodynamic tolerance
seen when tolerance occurs in the same environment in which the drug was administered, but tolerance is not aparent or is much reduced in a novel environment
behavioral tolerance
states that tasks learned in the presence of a psycholactive drug may subsequently be performed better in the drugged state than in teh nondrugged state
state dependent learning
the enhancement of particular drug effects after repeated administration of the same dose of drug
the study of the genetic basis for variability in drug response amoung individuals
produces a half maximal effect
the more potent drug is one that has a __ ED50
nerve cells that provide metabolic support, protection, and insulation for neurons
glial cells
neurons that are sensitive to enironmental stimuli, convert physical stimuli in the world aroudn us and in our internal envionrment into an electrical signal, • Take sensory stimuli from outside world
sensory nerons
nerve cells within teh brain and spinal cord that form complex interacting neural circuits and are responsible for conscious sensations, recognition, memory, decision making, and cognition. Connect sensory and motor neurons, Makeup majority of neurons
nerve cells direct biobehavioral responses appropriate for the situation
motor neurons
the cell body of a nerve cell which contains the nuceus and other organelles that maintain cell metabolic function
part of a neuron which are treelike projections from teh soma that receive information from other cells
the singular tubular extension that conducts the electical signal from teh cell body of a neuron to teh terminal buttons ont eh axon terminals
the salty, gelatinous fluid in a nerve cell
the gap between a presynaptic axon terminal and a postsyaptic dendrite
the study of the genetic basis for variability in drug response amoung individuals
Stem cells
stem cells in nervous system become __
Neurons and glia
nerve cels that transmit information in the form of electrical signaling
neurons with a single, long axon and multiple branching dendrites, found in the CNS
a neuron with two extensions coming out of the cell body, one connects to dendrites, the other to an axon
neuron with the cell body in the middle, two branches coming out of same extension (cerebellum, spinal cord)
where information comes in from other neurons (a site on the dendrite)
input zone
located on the axon hillock and axon
conduction zone
located on the axon terminal
output zone
dendrites are covered with short dendritic spines tht increase __. they can vary in number, size and shpae due to environmental pressures
surface area
when a neuron receives and integrates a vast amount of information from many cells
when teh integrated information can be transmitted to a few or thousands of other neurons
Most axons are wrapped with a __, a fatty insulating coating created by layers of glial cells (helps with conduction)
myelin sheath
breaks in the myelin sheath, the sites at which action potentials are generated
Nodes of Ranvier
__ can affect gene expression (starvation, overabundance of food)
the two processes of gene expression
transcription, translation
occurs in teh nuclues where messenger RNA makes a complementary copy of the active gene
when after moving from teh nucleus to the cytoplasm, mRNA attaches to organelles called ribosomes, which decode the recipe and link approriate amino acids together to form the protein
the three fiber types that compose the cytoskeleton of neurons
microtubule, neurofilament, microfilament
when information travels from teh cell body to the axon
antergrade transport
the two types of anterograde transport: __: uses neurotransmitters, __: uses proteins, organelles
fast, slow
when information travels from teh axon back to the cell body
the two kinds of gated channels
ligand gated and voltage gated channels
cells that produce the myelin sheath on neuronal axons of the peripheral nervous system
schwann cells
cells that produce the myelin sheath on neuronal axons of the central nervous system
large, star shaped cells that have numerous extensions. provide stuctural support, maintian ionic and chemical environment, sotre nutrients to provide energy for neurons
act as scavengers that collect at sites of neuron damage to remove dying cells
the study of how environmental demands such as diet, environmental toxins, stress, prenatal nutrition, and many others turn on or turn off the expression of specific genes
proteins that span the membrane and allow ions to pass
ion channels
anions are __ charged
cations are __ charged
__ causes ions to flow form areas of high to low concentration, along their concentration gradient (across a permeable membrane)
__ causes ions to flow towards oppositely charged areas (extra cellular fluid is more positive than intracellular fluid
Electrostatic forces
Gated channels (ligand Gated) are normally__
with the voltage gated K+ channels, as the inside of the cell becomes more__, voltage gated K+ channels open
the difference in electrical charge beween inside and outside of cell (-70 mV)
Resting membrane potential
when a membrane allows ions to flow freely
Membrane permeability
once the cell interior and exterior match
neurons us a mechanism, the sodium potassium pump to maintain resting potential (3 sodium out of cell for every 2 potassium that come in)
Sodium potassium pump
the sodium potassium pump pumps __ sodium ions out of the cell for every __ potassium in
3, 2
__ is an increase in membrane potential-the interior of the membrane becomes even more negative
__ is a decrease in membrane potential-the interior of the cell becomes less negative
If depolarization is sufficient (reaches threshold [-40 mV]), an __ is generated (all or none phenomenon)
action potential
when various types of stimuli that disturb the membrane can open ion channels momentarily, causing smal local changes in ion distribution and hence electical potential differences called __
local potentials
when local potentials show summation
__ depolarizes neuron until threshold is hit, then action potential is generated down axon
Used giant squid axons to observe action potentials
Proved that ions were responsible for generatig axon potentials
hodkin and huxley
__ open when depolarization of the membrane occurs and allow sodium to come in, continues until equilibrium is reached
Voltage gated Na+ channels
__ as the inside of the cell becomes more positive, voltage gated K+ channels open allowing K+ out of the cell
Voltage gated K+ chanels
the time during which teh Na+ channels are closed and connot be opened regardless of teh amount of excitation, prevents the occurrence of anohter actin potential
absolute refractory period
when the membrane is more plarized than normal and it is more difficult to generate an action potntial
relative refractory period
when action potentials jump between the nodes of ranvier
salutory conduction
signals going into the spinal cord
sensory afferents
mixed nerves which are cells beginnning int eh ventral horn of teh spinal cord and ending on skeletal muscles
motor efferents
the summing of potentials that come from different parts of the cell
Spatial summation
the summing of potentials that arrive at the axon hillock at different times
Temporal summation
Head end of four legged animal
Rostral or anterior
Tail end off four animal
Caudal or posterior
Towards the belly
Inferior or ventral
towards the back
superior or dorsal
towards the midline
away from the midline
on the same side of the body
cross over to the other side
near the center
toward the periphery
three layers covering the brain that provide protection
teh outermost menigies
dura mater
the menigies just below the dura, a membrane with a weblike sublayer filled with cerebrospinal fluid
arachnoid mater
a thin layer of tissue that sits directly on teh nervous tissue
pia matter
CSF is secreted in teh __
the CSF circulates through __, __, and __
ventricles, subarachnoid space, central canal
the brain recieves its blood through teh __ and__ arteries
corotid, vertebral
responsible for energy mobilization, origin in thoracic and lumbar spinal cord
sympathetic nervous system
responsible for energy conservation and storage, origin in cranial nerves and sacral spinal cord
a series of chambers filled with CSF
the two functions of CSF
shock absorber, exchange medium between blood and brain
the internal carotid artery branches into the __ cerebral sections
anterior and midle
__ enter the skull and form the basilar artery which gives rise to the posterior cerebral arteries
Vertebral arteries
The __ is a structure formed by the major cerebral arteries
circle of willis
The result of higher resistance in brain capillaries that restricts passage of large molecules
the blood brain barrier
made up of teh brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
the PNS is broken down into teh __ and__
somatic, autonomic
teh somatic nervous system is broken down into the __ and __
sensory and motor
the autonomic nervous system is broken down into the __ and __
sympathetic and parasympathetic
teh somatic nervous system is __
the autonomic nervous system is __
Dilates puils, ihibits salvation, relaxes airways, accelerates heartbeat, stimulates lucose production and relase from leiver, inhibits digestion, contricts blood vessels in skin
the sympathetic nervous system is teh __ system
fight of flight
parasympathetic nervous system is the __ system
rest and resotration
Enter and exit the brain directly to serve the region of the head and neck
Cranial nervres
there are __ of spinal nerves exit eh spinal cord to provide sensory an mortore pathways to the torso, arms, and legs
31 pairs
spinal cords are __ (containng an afferent and efferent nerve)
mixed nerve
a nerve that sends sensory info to the brain
a nerve with info leaving the brain
there are __ crainal nerves
in dvelopment the __ becomes the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, spinal cord
neural tube
during development when cell migration occurs, Precursure cells start out on edge of__, have to move to other parts of the brain
during development when cell migration occurs, the __ stretch out axons and precursure cells climb up to move into parts of the brain
the first area of the CNS to develop are the __
hind brain and mid brain
the last part of the CNS to develop
__ is an attractive substance (growth cones travel towards these)
NGF (nerve growth factor)
the spinal cord extends from the __ to the __
medulla, first lumbar vetebra
gray matter is made up of __
neuron cell bodies
white matter is made up of __
myelinated sheath
made up of the myelencephalon (medulla) the metencephalon (pons and cerebellum)
the hindbrain
made up of the mesencephalon
responsible for Motor coordination, Balance, Learning, Attention, Memory
one of the first structures affected by alcohol
The __ is attached to the cerebellum and contains motor and sensory nuclei and gives rise to cranial nervres
Responsible for REM stage of sleep (restorative)
The __ contains cranial nerve nuclei and marks the transition from brain to spinal cord
responsible for regulating Heartbeat, digestion, BP, respiration, coughing, vomiting
the main area affected with overdose
regulates sleep and arousal (person slips into coma when damaged)
Reticular formation
part of the basal ganglia (if damaged ie parkisons, there is uncontrollable motor movment)
Substantia nigra
communicates with motoneurons of the spinal cord
Red Nucleus
where pain information is transmitted
Periaqueductal gray
the substantia nigra, red nuclei, and periaqueductal gray make up the __
Midbrain motor system
the superior and inferior colliculi make up the
midbrain sensory system
process visual information
fuperior colliculi
process auditory information
inferior colliculi
together, the superior and inferior make up the
lets us coordinate visula and auditory information together
made up of the thalamus and hypothalamus of teh diencephalon
the forebrain
the sensory hub of the brain: regulates body timp, salt/water balance, thirst, energy , metabolism, reproductive behavior, and emotional responses, connects with glands that control the autonomic nervous system (ie pituitary gland)
in the forebrain, information must pass through the __ to be sorted through
develops after thalamus and hypothalamus, contains basal ganglia, limbic system, and cerebral cortex
located deep within the cerebral hemispheres, coordinates movment, affected by huntingtons disease
basal ganglia
participates in laeraning and emotion, located in teh center of teh cortex, coordinates and regulates our emotions, made up of amygdala, hippocampus, and fornix
the limbic system
teh hippocampus and fornix are associated with __
the cingulated gyrus is associated with __
the brain is dominated by __
two cerebral hemispheres
the cerebral cortex is connected by the __ and __ (allows for communication between two hemispheres
corpus callosum and anterior commissure
grooves in teh brain
ridges in the brain
serve to increase surface area of the brain
sulcui and gyri
lobes of the cortex
frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
motor cortex
recieves informationfrom skin surface and sense organs
sensory cortex
type of synapse where: • Axon terminal forms synapse with dendrite of receiving molecule
typ of synapse where: axon forms synapse with the cell body
synapse where: the axon forms synapse with antoher axon
when synapses between tow axons modulate the amount of neurotransmitters released (increase or decrease), may enhance, reduce, or prolong the action of a neurotransmitter
type of synapse where: the synapse is formed by two dendrites
what is the sequence of transmission of an action potential? (7 steps)
1. action potential travels down teh axon to the axon terminal 2. voltage gated calcium channels open and calcium ions (Ca2+) enter 3. synaptic vesicles fuse with membrane and release transmitter into the synaptic cleft 4. transmitters bind to postsynaptic receptors and cause an ESPS or IPSP 5. EPSP's or IPSP's spread toward the postsynaptic axon hillock 6. tranmitter is inactivated or removed 7. tranmitter may activate presynaptic autoreceptors, decreasing release
kinds of classical neurotransmitters: (3)
amino acids, monoamines, acetylcholine
types of nonclassical neurotransmitters (3)
neuropeptides, lipids, gases (NO)
volume trasmission vs wiring/ synaptic transmission are kinds of __
when a wave of __ reaches the axon terminals, voltage gated Ca2+ open and Ca2+ rushes into the cell
Ca2+ channels are located in active zones of the __
terminal buttons
process of membrane connecting with vesicle, popping, it and releasing the neurotranmitters
process in which vesicles get recycled
ligands have two categories:
endogenous (anything made inside the body naturally), and exogenous (anthing made ouside the body drugs toxins)
two ways receptors control ion channels
ionotrophic, metabotropic
a ligand gated receptor, when the neurotransmitter binds and they open
when proteins or first messengers somtimes open channels or may activate another chemical to affect ion channels
the rapid breakdown and inactivati nof transmitter by an enzyme ie acyetalchoine esterase
when the transmitter is taken up into the presynaptic cell
Neurotransmitters release is regulated by:
Rate of neuron fireing, probablilty that vesivle will undergo exocytosis, Autoreceptors
receptors for the same transmitter released by the neuron
on cell bodies or dendrites, slow down rate of firing, reduces amount of neurotransmitter release
monitor NT released by other neurons surrounding it
Drug that act as a __ can increase the rate of synthesis
NT precursor
a drug that inhibits synthesis enzyme __
Reduces levels of NT
bacterial toxin blocks transmitter release at neuromuscular junctions, causing paralysis
when drugs block enzymes for breakdown, they __ NT action
when a drug acts as an __, it mimics NT effect on receptor
when a drug acts as an__, it inhibits the effect of a NT on the receptor
functional and structural synaptic changes
Synaptic plasticity
__ are packaged in vesicles
classical NT
__ are not packaged in vesicles
nonclassical NT
amino acid NT that is predominatly EPSP
amino acid NT that it predominatly IPSP
CABA, glycine
catecholamine that is predominantly IPSP
catecholamine that is predominantly EPSP
catecholamine that is predominantly both IPSP and EPSP
indoleamine that is predominatly IPSP
cholinergic that is both IPSP and EPSP
the path of monoamine synthesis is __ --> __ --> __
substrate, enzyme, product
classical kind of NT, catecholamines and serotonin, modified amino acid
__ NT stay in the synapse much longer
the major excitatory neurotransmitter, a precursor for GABA, responsible for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation
__ transmission uses 3 types of receptors (AMPA most common, kainate, and NMDA)
in glutamatergic transmission, __ is the most common and implicated in activity and coordination
the overstimulation of CLU receptors, neural injury such as stoke may cuase excess release of glutamate which is toxic to neurons
the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, long term potentiation
NT: Agonists: valium, potent tranquilizers, antagonists: produce seizures
NT implicated in memory, reward, and cognition, implicated in disorders including schizophrenia and parkinsons disease
a dopamine pathway that originates in teh midbrain specifcally the substantia nigra, and innervates the striatum
mesostriatal pathway
a dopamine pathway that originates in teh midbrain in the ventral tegental area (VTA) and projects to the limbic system and cortex
mesolimbocortical DA pathway
NT: agonists: activate behavior, antagonists: cause sedation/catalepsy
NT that modulates processes including mood, arousal, and sexual behavior, involved in stress and ecision making, known as noradrenaline, metabotropic
__ adrenoreceptors produce cognitive enhancing effects while __ helps with memory consolidation
alpha 2, beta 2
NT implicated in sleep, mood, sexual behavior, and anxiety, 5-HT, happiness hormone
NT: agonists: produces hallucinations in humans, reduce headaches, antagonists: relief from nausea
transmitter at the neuromuscular junction connecting motor nerves to muscles, borken down by acetylcholinesterase, loss of these neurons seen in alzheimers disease
kind of Ach receptor in which most are ionotrophic and exciatory, muscles use these
kind of Ach receptor that is metabotropic and can be excitatory or inhibiotry
plant compound that works on Ach system as an antagonist (causes paralysis)
chemicals synthesized by teh endocrine glands that are secreted in teh bloodstream
hormone: increases heart rate and feelings of excitement during emergnecy situations
male sex hormone and anabolic steroid
"love" hormone
hormone that aids in controlling glucose levels in the blood
hormone released as a stress response
Ach is always __ in skeletal muscle
reduced levels of __ in some brain areas noted in alzheimers patients
__ mimics Ach in teh brain triggering the release of exitatory hormones such as epinphrin and norepinephrine as well as dopamine
Ach receptors at skeletal muscle can be blocked by __
reduction in # of Ach receptors at skeletal muscle causes __
myasthenia gravis
released in teh fight or flight response
the bodies natural opiates
the pain NT
substance P
__ decreases serotonin levels causing you to have poor judgment, act irrationally, stat fights, act stupid etc