and G is the incident radiation. In contrast to the P-1 model (discussed in subsection 2.2.5) which uses a transport equation for G, the Rosseland model assumes that the incident radiation intensity is the black body intensity at that temperature of the medium. In other words [3], (2.14) where n is refractive…
focus on more external factors than internal factors that may influence the disease outbreak conditions. Phenomenological Modeling: The second method used to model the measles disease is referred to as phenomenological modeling; these include the non-linear time series models, feed-forward neural networks (FNN), and the semi-nonparametric (SNP) models (Ellner et al., 427). In regards to phenomenological modeling, FNN is the favorable method to use for making inferences about measles outbreaks. …
approximate the variable. The distribution across each element may be defined by a polynomial (for example, linear or quadratic) or a trigonometric function. After the problem has been discretized, the governing equations for each element are calculated and then assembled to give the system equations. Once the general format of the equations of an element type is derived, the calculation of the equations for each occurrence of that element in the body is straightforward; it is simply a question…
measurement of static and kinetic friction to calculate the coefficients of frictions. From the graph, the maximum static force is peak force value before kinetic friction takes place.Then get µs according to equation fsmax = µs N. From the average kinetic friction from the Force -Time graph and equation fk = µk N, calculate its coefficient. This lab leads to a conclusion that the coefficient of static friction is usually larger than that of kinetic friction. Our experimental value of…
silicate. Sodium silicate formed in this study was prepared with different molar ratios, n, ranging from 1 to 4 as shown in Equation (2.1). The result obtained was generally in the ratio of three SiO2 molecules to one molecule of Na2CO3 producing three molecules of sodium silicate and carbon dioxide gas released, shown as equation (2.2). Equation (2.1) n = SiO2 / Na2O Equation (2.2) 3SiO2 +Na2CO3 (3SiO2 , Na2O) + CO2 The result obtained was close to 3.3 : 1…
RNase H that was purified in the previous experiment #6 was determined and also the concentration of an unknown given solution using their absorbance values obtained from the spectroscopy apparatus. These concentrations were calculated using the equation of the line produce with the values of the concentration (x-axis) and corresponding absorbance (y-axis) of five protein bovine gamma globulin standard solutions. In order to prepare each of these standards within a range of 50 microliters to…
neutral axis [4]. The final equation is, Equation 5 is utilized to calculate the deflection δ of the cantilevered beam at x = L when a load is applied at a point. Since we would not applying a specific load but knowing the displacement we solved this equation for P. There equation came out to be, After modifying the equations 2, 3, 4, and 6 and forming one equation, we were are then able to derive the equation which represents the Bernoulli-Euler equation to be, Equation 7, is utilized to relate…
Three approaches were used in developing cost profile method; net cash flow, contract value data (value flow) and construction cost data (cost flow or cost commitment) by utilizing the three sides of the cash flow equation. Though significant deviation observed with actual and modeled forecast due to lack of addressing the risks impact inherent with construction industry. So in this paper it is focused to develop a model to predict the changes to baseline of cost flow…
The modulus of elasticity from Eq. (2.6) is 16788 MPa. That shows good agreement between static modulus of elasticity obtained experimentally and that obtained from the ACI equation. The difference between the experimental value and analytics value is about 3%. As mentioned earlier in chapter 2, most of the available data in the literature on the modulus of elasticity considers that the ratio between the Young's modulus of LWC…
The theory of Continuous Auditing was established by Vasarhelyi and Halper (1991). Continuous auditing entails the real-time monitoring and analysis of the entire population of records. The premise of this methodology is based on the concept of “audit by exception” where deviations (e.g. control variances) are flagged as alerts and forwarded to the responsible parties (e.g. management, internal auditors, business owners) for investigation. Continuous auditing has evolved from an academic theory…