Variations in the cross-sectional stock returns drive abnormal returns from momentum investments (Choi & Kim, 2014). The Capital Asset Pricing Model explains such variations (Alhenawi, 2015). In the method of constructing momentum portfolios, past stock performance and expected average returns were found positively correlated (Jegadeesh & Titman, 1993, 2001). The correlation between winner returns and loser returns resulted in momentum profits (Alphonse & Nguyen, 2013). This section is an overview of related literature for this research. We group the related literature into the following categories: 1) Sources of momentum returns, 2) Various methods and negative and inconsistent findings, 3) Behavioral vs risk factors, 4) Momentum and efficient market hypothesis, and 5) Momentum and liquidity. Sources of Momentum Returns Asset classes. Majority of the past research on price momentum focused on the stocks and found momentum effects (e.g., Haga, 2015; Jegadeesh & Titman, 1993, 2001; Shynkevich, 2012; Jiang, Li, D., & Li, G., 2012; Tekçe & Yılmaz, 2015). Momentum profits were found in…
proxies of risk. Accordingly, the TFM cannot be utilised to explicate the return of stocks. They tested the stock returns for five years by utilising the NYSE stocks imported from the COSTAT and the CRSP. They discovered that the best returns on value stocks were caused by increasing amendments in predicting the rate of future growth. The authors explicated that the BTMR and the size of the firm impacts were the result of the systematic error of the method that practitioners utilised to…
Capital asset pricing model According to Ross, Westerfield and Jordan (2008) capital asset pricing model is the equation of the security market line showing the relationship between expected return and beta. It is use to calculate the rate of return for risky asset. CAPM state that expected return of a security or a portfolio equals the rate on a risk free security plus a risk premium. Formula for CAPM E(Ri)=Rf + [{E(Rm) - Rf}] βi Where, E(Ri)= return required on financial asset I, Rf= risk…
Merton 's (1973) intertemporal capital asset pricing model (ICAPM) was developed to capture this multi-period aspect of financial market equilibrium. We still don 't know exactly how many factors there are, but the ICAPM at least gives us some guidance. Consumption-Oriented Capital Asset Pricing Model The consumption-based model of Breeden (1979) provides a logical extension of the previous work in asset pricing. Based on this "diminishing marginal utility of consumption," securities that have…
Understanding the cross-section of equity market returns has been one of the most researched topics in finance for many years. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), introduced by Sharpe (1964), Lintner (1965) and Black (1972), states that there is a linear relation between beta (systematic risk) and expected stock returns and that beta is sufficient to explain the variation in expected returns. The validity of the CAPM, however, has been questioned by many empirical studies which have provided…
Capital market theory is a description and the prediction of the progression of the capital. Capital market theory is used to measure the returns wanted by investors and the intrinsic risks involved; it is model that is used to price assets and most commonly used is to price shares. It is most definitely important response to financial judgment making. Besides that, Capital market theory develops a model for all unsafe assets and ads on the portfolio theory. For the development of capital market…
In capital asset pricing model capital market line is used to define the rate of return for the portfolio efficiency. Efficient portfolio depends on the risk free rate of return and risk level for the specific portfolio. It is tangent line draw from the intercept point on the capable point to the point where both risk free rate of return and expected rate of returns becomes equal. Market portfolio and risk free asset coalitions consequences form the capital market line. port All points on the…
different asset pricing models used in establishing the required rate of return for different types of assets. The models, including the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT), and the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) use several assumptions regarding the information available to investors to establish the value of assets. Information is essential in the financial markets, it influences investors decision to invest and how successful is the investment if one gets it…
To understand the issues in this essay, it is important to know what is the Capital Assets Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Arbitrage Pricing Model (APT). According to the publications of Sharpe (1964), Lintner (1965) and Mossin (1966) the CAPM is a basic model of pricing of capital assets, the model offers a set of predictions about an equilibrium of expected return on risky assets. CAPM is one of the basic pillar of financial economy. The CAPM offers a set of predictions concerning about how to…
Long term sustainability of a company depends on various factors. Strategic capital structure would cater long term financial solution for the company. Capital structure of a company will be consisting of both debts and equity. The ratio between debt and equity will be decided based on number of strategic factors such as industry, PEST factors, legal and corporate governance of the company. When deciding the capital structure, organizations should understand both positives and negatives of the…