Dominant species identified were Cannabis sativa, Oxalis corniculata, Cynodon dactylon and Digitaria setigera. Cannabis sativa, the most frequently occurring specie of study area, is a wild herb and grows in moist and waste places near houses and along roadsides. It is common weed found throughout of Pakistan (Abbasi et al., 2011). As far as second most dominant species Oxalis corniculata is concerned, it is found in temperate areas having moisture and sunlight like waste places, cultivated lands in loamy soil, gardens, yards, driveways and sidewalk cracks (Abbasi et al., 2011; Eiten, 1955). Another prevalent species, Cynodon dactylon is commonly found in warm and temperate climates of world (Kole, 2011). Natural population are highly tolerant toward soil salinity (Pessarakli, 2007). Cynodon dactylon appeared as most dominant specie with RF of 47.5% followed by Cannabis sativa with RF of 17.9% in Islamabad as stated…
the collection of phytosociological data. One contained site number, name, collection date, length of the site, number of quadrat, name of the individual, etc. which were used for tree, shrub and herb species, whereas other used only for tree species that contained circumference of the tree at breast height (Cbh), canopy and height of the individual tree species.
Formats used for the collection of herb, shrub and tree species data
List of the sites of the Petlad…
Pattern: Calcium levels in the soil controls soil pH and species richness within a community
Hypothesis 1: Calcium levels in the soil controls soil pH.
Prediction: An increase in the calcium levels in the soil will make the soil less acidic.
Reasoning: Calcium exists mainly in the soil as exchangeable cations (ca^2+) associated with basic anions, which reacts with soil acidity (H) to neutralize it.
Analytical approach: Regression
Independent variable: Calcium levels…
When looking at the data provided, the trends of native-species increase in the restored area and the abundance of exotic species seen in the degraded areas provides an idea of how effective the restoration efforts where at restoring them to the reference site. To begin, the data provided in table 5 gives an idea of the distribution of the number of species found at each site, and how much of a contrast is shown between the restored and degraded areas and how they compare to the reference site.…
ecosystem. This variety can be between species, within species, and between ecosystems, but in this lab, only the variety between species will be discussed to quantify the biodiversity of the target ecosystem. Biodiversity can be quantified by two main aspects which are species richness, and species eveness. Species richness is the number of species observed per sample of an ecosystem, and if there are a higher amount of different species within one sample of an ecosystem, then that sample is…
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPECIES DIVERSITY AND SIZE
Effect of Surface Area on the number of species in biodiversity.
Yes, there is a relationship between species diversity and size, the smaller the habitat the less diversity of species there will be.
Species diversity is the variety of organisms that make up a community
It has two components:
• SPECIES RICHNESS: is the total number of different species in the area
• RELATIVE ABANDANCE: is the proportion each species represents in that certain…
the peculiarity within species in the purposeful units of heredity existing in any plant, animal, microbial or any other source of life. However as a crucial unit for measuring and assessing biodiversity it has formerly been dismissed as too difficult task and costly to exercise or execute (Moritz,1994; Nagar 2005).
Differences between individual organisms have two causes: variation in the genetic material which all…
BALANCING BIODIVERSITY IN CHANGING ENVIRONMENT: IMPORTANCE AND CONSERVATION
Biodiversity is the variety and variability of living organisms, including their species richness in an environment. It is a major component of environment and useful for all living organisms including man. Biodiversity plays important role in regulation of climate. Biodiversity is a major part of life-support system. It is particularly ecological, economic, spiritual, cultural, and aesthetic importance.…
4.0Chapter four Discussion:
4.1 Point Counts
By restraining the recording of species to a 10- 50m fixed radius when in dense forest at kamwala 1 forest, it allows the subtraction the certain bias, such as, the highly vocal forest species; White bellied Go Away bird and Tropical Bulbul, as well as those species which ‘generally’ occur above the canopy (for example; forest raptors).
The most widespread species to occur across all the count areas (map 1) were Common Bulbul, Orange ground thrush…