The sample of a population is used within this process to make inferences about the population from which it was derived (Chamberlain, 2016). When selecting the sample, it is recommended that researchers identify the methods they used to obtain that sample (Creswell, 2014). Creswell (2014) identified two methods for this process. First, he recommended selecting a random sample (Creswell, 2014). The central characteristic of a random sample is that all individuals have a non-zero and independent chance of being selected to participate (Chamberlain, 2016). Furthermore, randomization allows researchers to better generalize about a population (Creswell, 2016). Another type of sampling is systematic random sampling (Chamberlain, 2016). Using this method, researchers should develop a comprehensive list that is not structured (Chamberlain, 2016). Once the list has been compiled, the researcher should choose a random spot on that list, based off of the total sample size, and then select by interval moving forward (Chamberlain, 2016). While drawing a random sample is ideal, it is not always feasible. Therefore, another alternative sampling approach, which is considered less desirable, is referred to as the nonrandomized approach (Creswell, 2014). Researchers who utilize this approach often use it when they are not…
Exercise 1: Sampling
This group of vehicles I chose to sample was selected on September 21st, 2016. The parking lot these cars were chosen is located in Mansfield, Ohio, on Main Street, across from the Carousel, at 4:30pm.
Vehicle Type Maker Age Color State Parking Spot #
Sedan Honda 4-7 Green Ohio 32
Sedan Hyundai 0-3 Blue Ohio 56
Pick-up Chevy 0-3 Red Ohio 14
Coup Mini-Cooper 4-7 Green Ohio 9
SUV Ford 8+ Brown New York 61
SUV Toyota 0-3 Black Ohio 28
Sedan Dodge 4-7 Red Ohio 41
the information obtained tends to be superficial. The researcher must know sampling techniques, questionnaire construction, interviewing, and data analysis is also the disadvantage of Cross- Sectional.
Ex post facto
The advantage of Ex post facto is that offers a higher level of control than a correlational study. The disadvantages of Ex post facto is that it does not allow one to draw a causal linkage between two variable. And it is an alternative hypothesis could be the reason for the…
Required theory should be developed and available
2. A quantitative question is asked and should be free from legal and ethical issues to conduct experiments.
Pre-Experimental Design – A single group is studied in this design and no comparison is made between equivalent groups.
QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
The manipulation, control, and randomization are not required in Quasi-experimental designs. There are following three types of quasi experimental types:
1. Nonequivalent control group design –…
If there is a dependent variable, what is it? How are they operationalized?
A dependent variable corresponds with an outcome in which the researcher wants to understand/predict (p43). In this case scenario, the dependent variables are the subjects/clients at the needles exchange center. The dependent variables are operationalized because the researcher specifically manipulated the control groups to measure the concept of the needed data (p44.)
e. Was there randomization used in this…
The sample data from the athletes in the MIAA showed a correlation of -0.026, meaning there is no correlation between the two variables. The statistical tests used were both a bootstrap test and a randomization hypothesis test for a correlation.
Figure 1. Scatter plot and summary statistics from the sample data. This display has the time in seconds on the X-axis and the distance in miles on the Y-axis.
Then, to examine if the distance traveled has any impact on the speed of the…
of subjects from the study
7. Pre Study Evaluation
8. during Study Evaluation
9. Post Study Evaluation.
10. Analysis of Sample
11. Statistical Evaluation
12. Preparation of Report
Schedule of Study Period I Period II
Check in 08-11-2014 15-11-2014
Dosing 09-11-2014 16-11-2014
Check out 10-11-2014 17-11-2014
Washout period 07days
Table .1 Study Schedule
4.2.1. Number of Subjects:
24 Normal, Healthy, Adult male…
Clearly, randomization is crucial to eliminate certain bias and have an accurate trial.
6. Explain how the intervention(s) in the treatment arm differed from how participants in the control arm were treated. In other words, what is the trial testing?
Participants in the treatment arm were given 12.5 milligram Zinc Sulfate, whereas the participants in the control arm were given a placebo. The trial is testing whether Zinc Sulfate is beneficial to children who have Malaria or not.
7. Was the…
Randomization will be performed using a computer generated randomization allocation table by a computer technician not involved in the study. All participants will receive an opaque sealed envelope with the assigned randomization number and the instructions. The computerized random sampling method is appropriate because of its ease to use and accuracy of representation. Additionally, it eliminates selection bias and balances groups being studied (Suresh, 2011).
Does the sample reflect the…
non-smoker subgroup, and study not randomize. Two statistical issues will be cause. The subgroup analyses can increase type 1error and type 2. Type 1 error is defined as the texts detect an effect that is not existent. Type 2 error is defined as the text failing detects an effect that is existent.
2c. In order to reduce these problems we can use four methods to design study so as to make study significantly, validity and reliability. They are including subgroups identified before randomization,…