Predation

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    Songbird Predation Essay

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    Discussion of the effects of Perceived Predation affecting Songbird Offsprings. An assessment was done to observe the effects of perceived predation risk in a free-living population of song sparrows. The sparrows were found on several of the small Gulf Islands (British Columbia, Canada). The focus was only on perceived predation consequently direct predation was eliminated. The method to eliminate the direct killing by a predator was by electrifying nests and barricading with seine nets. In order to ensure that direct predation was strictly prevented, video surveillance system was incorporated in the experiment to watch over the nests. To trigger the songbirds of predation risk, the researchers prepared playlists of sounds of predator…

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    Evolution by natural selection and predator induced phenotypic plasticity are mechanisms that have been proposed to describe the effect of crab predation on snail shell thickness. Biologist Robin Seeley hypothesized that the periwinkle populations of New England evolved by natural selection as the European green crab was introduced to the area (Seeley, 1986). The three requirements for evolution by natural selection are that there is variation among a population, the variation is partly…

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    Competition, predation and species responses to environmental change In the study that was run they were trying to examine the effects of interspecific competition which is when individuals of different species are competing for the same resources such as food and shelter in an ecosystem and the preying of one species on another species due to species responses to temperature change (Jiang and Kulczycki, 2004). Other experiments have been run on temperature change but they do not have a good…

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    Countershaded Prey

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    the finds of previous research (Edmunds & Dewhist, 1994; Speed et al., 2005; Rowland 2007) that also showed a significant difference in predation amounts between these two prey groups. This result indicates that the two functions of countershading are responsible for the increase in crypsis and therefore the decrease in predation. Firstly, as self-shadow concealment is present in the countershaded prey and not the uniformly white prey lower detection occurred. This is due to the perception of…

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    are the result of direct predation (Chappell, et al., 2016). Invasive species can be plants, animals, fish, fungi, or even single celled organisms such as bacteria. Outside forces such as human interferences are how invasive…

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    Procyon Lotor Hypothesis

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    To determine whether smaller species strictly avoid areas where larger predatory species are present. How carnivore species interact can have important implications for other species in addition to carnivores Hypothesis/Question: (this study had two testable predictions) H1: Coyote predation is an important cause of mortality in raccoon populations. H2: Raccoons avoid areas used by…

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    of risk posed by different types of predators (Naguib 1999). Many studies have suggested that local predation in areas where predators vary can influence the strength of mobbing in accordance to common and weaker responses displayed by prey species (Sandoval & Wilson, 2012). To further investigate the countenance of avian mobbing behavior, it is important to understand whether mobbing behavior is specific to predator recognition, or is it perceived risk associated to predation upon a…

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    Schooling, a common behavioural adaptation amongst prey fish, requires them to gather in a large group of fish swimming together (called a shoal). Once in a shoal, the fish adopt either passive or active technique to evade predation. Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) use a passive predator deterrence technique wherein, simply forming a school in the presence of predators. Research suggests that a group of active prey fish reduce the chance of being caught simply by swimming in a shoal. This may…

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    Escape and radiate coevolution necessitates the development of a trait or traits in one of the interacting species which provides an extreme advantage over the other and results in its rapid speciation into multiple lineages. The evolution of a particularly effective defense mechanism may render a species effectively immune to predation for a period of time, until a predator species counter-adapts in response, allowing for adaptive radiation unimpeded by predation (Futuyma). Escape and radiate…

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    Terrestrial Animals

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    observing reproductive behaviours of hermaphroditic reef fishes found that reproduction was species dependant, though there were similarities and overlaps (Petersen, 1987). Studying Serranus faciatus, they found that individuals has fully function gonads of both sexes (simultaneous hermaphrodite) however, the larger individuals will reabsorb their female gonads (Petersen, 1987). This adaption allows to fish to be better adapted for survival in their environment. Similar to this, other fishes…

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