HOW CLOSE ARE WE?
November 23, 1999
The Detection of Gravitational Waves,
How Close Are We?
Since the realization that the general theory of relativity predicts gravitational waves,
there have been attempts to actually detect these waves. Indirect observations have been made
that support their existence but no direct measurement. This paper gives a brief explanation of
gravitational waves and discusses the current condition of the experimental search for
gravitational waves. It deals with the newest techniques that will enable their detection. The
focus of the paper is on three experimental groups: LIGO, VIRGO, and LISA. From our research
of these groups…
time,θ is wave direction, σ is relative frequency, S_tot is the source term total, and c_g represents the propagation velocity.
The first term in the left hand side of the equation represents the local rate of change of action density in time. The second and third terms represent propagation of N in geographic space, accounting for shoaling as the group velocity c_g decreases in shallow water. The…
nature of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). It wasn’t until 2005 that a breakthrough in the information on SGRBs was made when the first afterglow of a SGRB was observed. The data showed that SGRBs are those that last less than two seconds, are typically found in galaxies with an assortment of star formation properties, and do not share the characteristics of GRBs originating from a star collapse. These findings supported the interpretation that SGRBs must be a result of collision or of two…
When a lens produces an image, the size of it corresponds to the focal length of the lens. The smaller the focal length, the smaller the image and the longer the focal length the bigger the image. How bright an image may be solely depends on the amount of light collected by the objective lens. How much light can be collected corresponds to the area of the objective lens. So the bigger the objective lens, the more light can be collected. If you want to increase the light gathering power by 4, you…
Musical Notes Can Count
Abstract— The development of mathematics involves early connections with music and the basic physics of sound. Mathematics is present in the natural occurrence of the ratios and intervals found in music and modern tuning systems. As people age, their hearing becomes dull and require change in the music ratio and interval to hear the same tune as when young. In like manner, the interval increases until a perfect pitch is heard. In this paper we will examine…
The mechanical vibration (Mechanical Vibration) is Oscillations (Periodic Motion) or random (Random Motion) of the mass of the mechanical system versus a balanced static system, the mechanical vibrations caused by mechanical systems (Structure or equipment), which is in a state of static equilibrium is disturbed by an external force. Resulting in the exchange of kinetic energy and potential energy between the mass and spring of the system. An example of interference…
The Wave is all about types, and Robert Billings is no exception; he's the school loser, to use the novel's rather cruel terminology. Other students in the school are afraid to ruin their own image by hanging out with the “class creep”. Ben Ross thinks that part of his problem is living in the shadow of his ultra-popular brother, who used to attend Gordon High School. When the Wave finally comes along, Robert seizes the opportunity to make a change, but things get even worse. Although some might…
the branch of physics concerned with the study of sound. Sound is a wave made of vibrations in the air. Waves can be measured in a range of different ways: by their amplitude, wavelength, frequency, speed, and, at times, their phase. Sound information is transmitted by the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations, where the amplitude is experienced as loudness and frequency as pitch. The vibration is started by some mechanical movement and this causes a vibration on the molecules next to the…
constant movement of people. It reminds her of the sea at high tide, when the waves are strong enough to knock you off your feet. At that moment Sarah is swept along, floating on the crest of the wave towards the train, bobbing along the platform buoyant with hope. Confusion, sadness and panic floating away with every wave she rides towards the train. Boarding the Grand Central train heading North on autopilot her head filled with anticipation and optimism.
The train starts to move. The noise,…
Interleaved Buck Converter System
Interleaved Buck Converter has lots of concentration due to its simple and low control complexity in application. where no isolation and high output current with low ripple. An No isolation DC/DC converter Fig.1.1 shows the step-down DC/DC converter. When switch M is on for the duration of dTs, power is transferred from source to load and filter inductor L is charged. When switch M is off for a duration (1-d)Ts, the diode D…