HOW CLOSE ARE WE?
November 23, 1999
The Detection of Gravitational Waves,
How Close Are We?
Since the realization that the general theory of relativity predicts gravitational waves,
there have been attempts to actually detect these waves. Indirect observations have been made
that support their existence but no direct measurement. This paper gives a brief explanation of
gravitational waves and discusses the current condition of the experimental search for
gravitational waves. It deals with the newest techniques that will enable their detection. The
focus of the paper is on three experimental groups: LIGO, VIRGO, and LISA. From our research
of these groups…
time,θ is wave direction, σ is relative frequency, S_tot is the source term total, and c_g represents the propagation velocity.
The first term in the left hand side of the equation represents the local rate of change of action density in time. The second and third terms represent propagation of N in geographic space, accounting for shoaling as the group velocity c_g decreases in shallow water. The…
nature of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). It wasn’t until 2005 that a breakthrough in the information on SGRBs was made when the first afterglow of a SGRB was observed. The data showed that SGRBs are those that last less than two seconds, are typically found in galaxies with an assortment of star formation properties, and do not share the characteristics of GRBs originating from a star collapse. These findings supported the interpretation that SGRBs must be a result of collision or of two…
When a lens produces an image, the size of it corresponds to the focal length of the lens. The smaller the focal length, the smaller the image and the longer the focal length the bigger the image. How bright an image may be solely depends on the amount of light collected by the objective lens. How much light can be collected corresponds to the area of the objective lens. So the bigger the objective lens, the more light can be collected. If you want to increase the light gathering power by 4, you…
Musical Notes Can Count
Abstract— The development of mathematics involves early connections with music and the basic physics of sound. Mathematics is present in the natural occurrence of the ratios and intervals found in music and modern tuning systems. As people age, their hearing becomes dull and require change in the music ratio and interval to hear the same tune as when young. In like manner, the interval increases until a perfect pitch is heard. In this paper we will examine…
The mechanical vibration (Mechanical Vibration) is Oscillations (Periodic Motion) or random (Random Motion) of the mass of the mechanical system versus a balanced static system, the mechanical vibrations caused by mechanical systems (Structure or equipment), which is in a state of static equilibrium is disturbed by an external force. Resulting in the exchange of kinetic energy and potential energy between the mass and spring of the system. An example of interference…
The Wave is all about types, and Robert Billings is no exception; he's the school loser, to use the novel's rather cruel terminology. Other students in the school are afraid to ruin their own image by hanging out with the “class creep”. Ben Ross thinks that part of his problem is living in the shadow of his ultra-popular brother, who used to attend Gordon High School. When the Wave finally comes along, Robert seizes the opportunity to make a change, but things get even worse. Although some might…
light blue sky. It is full of sand , animals, and people in Myrtle Beach. People wear bathing suits that have bright designs on them. Girls wear either two pieces or one suit with no shoes , only their wiggly toes. Boys wear only bottoms to show off their body figures. The sand is all over the beach wear people have their exciting moments.
I enjoy hearing the chirping birds fly and dogs barking while walking in Myrtle Beach. Kids yelling and talking to their friends and others are talking in…
This year when I went to Ocean City me, my grandparents, my aunt and my cousins Bella, Nic, and Sophia. Most of the time at the beach we were playing in the sand and the shallow water. Then I and my cousin Nic decided to ride the waves with tubes. I got a little to far out and my aunt called for me to come closer as I was swimming back I was facing shore as I was almost where my aunt wanted me my cousin Nic screamed: "Ciana look out". As he said look I turned around and about a fifteen-foot wave…
liquid or gas. Sound travels in longitudinal waves. There is also a vibration that starts on an object, and this causes a vibration on all the molecules. When these molecules vibrate, they cause all of the other surrounding molecules to vibrate. This vibration will spread from molecule to molecule causing sound to travel.
1. What is a wave?
A wave is a chain of vibrating molecules. In general, a wave transfers energy from one place to another.
2. Can sound move through outer space?