Bromination of trans-cinnamic acid
Purpose and Introduction
The halogenation of of trans-cinnamic acid using pyridinium tribromide was connected in the organic solvent glacial acetic acid in order to verify and test which addition mechanism the reaction would follow. In the anti-addition mechanism, bromines attach themselves on opposite sides of the alkene functional group in a compound. In a syn-addition, the attach to the same side of the alkene.
The reaction synthesis was completed by using a reflux system to produce to crude product, and a vacuum filter to yield a solid, crude product. Recrystallization of the solid product was performed, allowing the impurities of the solid to be removed while slowly crystallizing and the product. The melting point of the final recrystallized product was taken to compare and…
and researches have shown that short-term inhalation of the gas is low in toxicity for mice, and very low for rats. When mices are exposed to the highest concentration of Methyl Bromide level in a 13 week period, the result is that their body weights are lowered. When exposed to less concentration, there were no health changes. Methyl Bromide also has no effect to dogs. However, some animal studies show that when exposed to a large amount of Methyl Bromide, some animals may be affected. [i]…
Bromine was discovered in 1826 by a French chemist by the name of Antoine-Jérôme Balard. It contains a molar mass of 79.904 grams per mole (g/mol). Bromine falls within group 7 of the periodic table and is a halogen. Its atomic number is 35 and is one of seven diatomic elements. Bromine is one of two elements that holds the natural state of liquid. I chose bromine for my independent paper because of many other elements I knew little to none about, I have never heard of bromine and was…
Whats bromine? bromine (Br) is a deep red, noxious liquid, and a member of the halogen elements, or Group 17 group vlla of the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 35. What you will soon find out by my paper is how it's used in everyday life, how it's produced and its physical properties.
Bromine was discovered in 1826 by the French chemist Antoine-Jérôme Balard in the residues from the manufacture of sea salt at Montpellier. He liberated the element by passing chlorine…
small of light soot due to smaller compound compared to toluene. Aromatic compounds like toluene are high in carbon content and slow to be oxidized. Some of the carbon atoms are converted into elemental carbon in the heat, but escape the flame before they are attacked by oxygen and as the result it burned sluggishly with cool yellow flames and black soot.
Alkanes do not react with bromine in dark but react in light. Presence of ultra-violet light or flame, the alkanes will undergo…
combustion, reaction with bromine and reaction with potassium permanganate. Combustion was used to test the unsaturation of hydrocarbon. The degree of unsaturation refers to the number of the rings and / or multiple bonds present in the hydrocarbon molecule (McMurry, 2015). Hexane was a saturated hydrocarbon, it completely combusted and emitted carbon dioxide plus water. Cyclohexene was an unsaturated hydrocarbon, it undergoes incomplete combustion (Clark, 2003) which showed the great intensity…
Subject: Experiment 23: Stereochemistry of the Addition of Bromine to trans-Cinnamic Acid
The purpose of this experiment was to carry out the bromination of trans-cinnamic acid, to determine the stereochemistry of the dibromide product of 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid, and find out whether the reaction proceeds by the usual bromonium ion mechanism or some other mechanism. In this experiment trans-cinnamic acid was mixed with glacial acetic acid and stirred in…
In this experiment, stereochemistry was explored by the isomerization of dimethyl maleate and the analysis of carvones. The isomerization was accomplished with the use of bromine, which broke the double bond to allow bond rotation. Free bond rotation allowed molecules to shift into the trans state before the double bond was reformed to create dimethyl fumarate. Weight and melting point of the crystals formed were taken for further analysis. Enantiomeric carvones…
According to official website for Gatorade, Gatorade is the one of the most famous sports drinks, which was formulated in early summer of 1965 at the University of Florida College of Medicine to help football players to facilitate proper hydration. A private company obtained patent to sell the drink publically and started adding chemicals to processed Gatorade in 1969 (Newsmax Health, 2013). Soon after, Gatorade spread out athletic fields and it became the official sports drink of the NFL in…
elements using chlorine, bromine and iodine.
The higher on the periodic table the more reactive the element will be.
0.2M potassium chloride solution
0.2M potassium bromide solution
0.2M potassium iodide solution