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17 Cards in this Set

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Describe fct of following genes:
(a) sonic hedgehog
(b) wnt-7
(c) FGF gene
(d) homeobox gene
(a) produced at base of limbs in zone of polarizing activity. Involved in patterning along anterior posterior
axis
(b) produced at apical ectodermal ridge. Necessary for proper organization along dorsal-ventral axis
(c) produced at apical ectodermal ridge. Stimulates mitosis of underlying mesodern to lengthen limbs
(d) involved in segmental organization
Fetal landmarks:
Day 0
Within wk1
Within wk2
Within wk3
Within wk3-8
Within wk 4
Within wk 8
Within wk 10
-Day 0: fertilization forming zygote
-Within wk1: Implantation as blastocyst
-Within wk2: Bilaminar disk (epiblast/hypoblast)
-Within wk3: Gastrulation (3 germ layers form-ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm). Primitive streak, notocord, neural plate form.
-Within wk3-8: Neural tube formed.
-Within wk 4: Heart begins to beat. Upper and lower limb buds form.
-Within wk 8: Fetal movement (looks like a baby)
-Within wk 10: Genitalia have male/female characteristics.
Ectopic Pregnancy
(1) Most common form
(2) Most common abdominal site
(3) Risk factors
(4) Clinical signs
(1) ampulla of uterine tube
(2) rectouterine pouch (Pouch of Douglas)
(3) Endometriosis, PID, tubular pelvic surgery, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES)
(4) Abnormal or brisk uterine bleed, acute abdomen, missed period, +hCG, culdocentesis showing intraperitoneal blood, +sonogram
hCG
(1) fct
(2) how long does the corpus luteum need to persist to support pregnancy?
(3) low hCG may indicate:
(4) high hCG may indicate:
(1) Stimulates production of progesterone by corpus luteum
(2) 8 wks
(3) ectopic pregnancy; spontaneous abortion
(4) hydatidiform mole; multiple pregnancy; gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
Embryological derivatives of:
(1) Ectoderm
(2) Mesoderm
(3) Endoderm
(1) Ectoderm
-Surface ectoderm: adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary); lens of eye; epithelial lining of oral cavity, ear, eye, and nose; epidermis; salivary, sweat, and mammary glands
-Neuroectoderm: Neural tube (CNS neurons, olidgodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, pineal gland, neurohypophysis); retina; spinal cord
-Neural crest: ANS; DRG; CN's; celiac ganglion; enterochromaffin cells (adrenomedulla); parafollicular cells of thyroid; Schwann cells; pia and arachnoid; bones of skull; odontoblasts; laryngeal cartilage; aorticopulmonary septum
(2) Mesoderm: Muscle; CT; serous membranes; bone; cartilage; blood; lymph; CV organs; adrenal cortex; urogenital structures; spleen; kidney and ureter; dura mater
(3) Endoderm:
-Epithelial parts: GI tract, tonsils, thymus, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, urinary bladder, urethra, tympanic cavity, auditory tube, and pharyngeal pouches
-Parenchyma: liver, pancreas, thyroid follicular cells, parathyroids, glands of GI tract, submandibular and sublingual glands.
Common mesodermal defects
VACTERL
-vertebral defects
-anal atresia
-CV defects
-tracheoesophageal fistula
-renal defects
-limb defects
Caudal dysplasia (sirenomelia)
Constellation of syndromes ranging from minor lesions of lower vertebrae to complete fusion of lower limbs. Result of abnormal gastrulation and associated w/VACTERL.
Teratogen effect on fetus:
(1) alcohol
(2) ACEI
(3) Cocaine
(4) Diethylstilbestrol
(5) Iodide (lack or excess)
(6) VitA (excess)
(7) Thalidomide
(8) Smoking (nicotine, CO)
(9) X rays, anticonvulsants
(10) Warfarin
(11) Tetracyclines
(12) Alkylating agents
(13) aminoglycosides
(14) Folate antagonists
(1) alcohol: Leading cause of birth defects and mental retardation; FAS
(2) ACEI: Renal damage
(3) Cocaine: Abnormal development and addiction; placental disruption
(4) Diethylstilbestrol: vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
(5) Iodide (lack or excess): congenital goiter or hypothyroidism
(6) VitA (excess): high risk for spontaneous abortion and birth defect (cleft palate, CV defect)
(7) Thalidomide: limb defects (flipper limbs)
(8) Smoking (nicotine, CO): preterm labor, placental problems, IUGR, ADHD
(9) X rays, anticonvulsants: multiple anomalies
(10) Warfarin: bone deformities, hemorrhage, abortion
(11) Tetracyclines: discolored teeth
(12) Alkylating agents: absence of digits, multiple anomalies
(13) aminoglycosides: CNVIII toxicity
(14) Folate antagonists: neural tube defects
Sacrococcygeal teratoma
Tumor arising from primitive streak which normally degenerates and disappears. Contains various types of tissue due to derivation from pluripotent cells. More common in females. Usually becomes malignant during infancy and must be removed by 6mos.
Chorion develops on day?
Amnion develops on day?
Chorion formed day 3
Amnion formed 8
Velamentous placenta
Umbilical vessels abnormally travel through amniochorionic membrane before reaching placenta proper. Can rupture and cause fetal hemorrhage and death.
Alpha Fetoprotein
(1) when does it appear?
(2) elevated AFP associated with?
(3) reduced AFP associated with?
(1) Fetal albumin (AFP) appears at 14-18w
(2) Neural tube defects, omphalocele (fetal serum leaking into amniotic fluid), esophageal and duodenal atresia
(3) Down syndrome
Vitelline fistula
B/w umbilicus and terminal ileum; results in fecal discharge (meconium)
Urachal fistula
b/w umbilicus and bladder; results in urinary discharge
Fetal-postnatal derivatives
(1) umbilical vein
(2) Umbilical arteries
(3) ductus arteriosus
(4) ductus venosus
(5) foramen ovale
(6) allantois
(7) notochord
(1) umbilical vein: ligamentum teres hepatis (contained in falciform ligament)
(2) Umbilical arteries: medial umbilical ligaments
(3) ductus arteriosus: ligamentum arteriosum
(4) ductus venosus: ligamentum venosum
(5) foramen ovale: fossa ovalis
(6) allantois: median ligament
(7) notochord: nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disk
Location of fetal erythropoiesis at various stages in fetal development
Yolk sac (3-8wk)
Liver (6-30wk)
Spleen (9-28wk)
Bone marrow (28wk+)
Hgb synthesis at various stages in fetal development
Delta2episolon2 (by yolk sac)
Alpha2gamma2 (by liver)
Alpha2beta2 (bone marrow)