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56 Cards in this Set

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Site of metabolism:
Fatty acid oxidation
Mitochondria
Site of metabolism: glycolysis
Cytoplasm
Site of metabolism: heme synthesis
Mitchondria and cytoplasm
Site of metabolism: fatty acid synthesis
Cytoplasm
Site of metabolism: acetyl CoA production
Mitchondria
Site of metabolism: HMP shunt
Cytoplasm
Site of metabolism: protein synthesis (RER)
Cytoplasm
Site of metabolism: urea cycle
Both cytoplasm and mitchondria
Site of metabolism: gluconeogenesis
Cytoplasm and mitchondria
Site of metabolism: steroid synthesis
Cytoplasm
Site of metabolism: TCA cycle
Mitchondria
Site of metabolism: oxidative phosphorylation
Mitchondria
Rate determining enzyme: glycolysis
Phosphofruktokinase-1
Rate determining enzyme: gluconeogenesis
Fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase
Rate determining enzyme: TCA cycle
Isocitrate dehydrogenase
Rate determining enzyme: glycogen synthesis
Glycogen synthase
Rate determining enzyme: glycogenolysis
Glycogen phosphorylase
Rate determining enzyme: HMP shunt
G6PD
Rate determining enzyme: de novo pyrimidine synthesis
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II
Rate determining enzyme: De novo purine synthesis
Glutamine PRPP amidotransferase
Rate determining enzyme: urea cycle
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase
Rate determining enzyme: Fatty acid synthesis
Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC)
Rate determining enzyme: Fatty acid oxidation
Carnitine acyltransferase I
Rate determining enzyme: ketogenesis
HMG COA synthase
Rate determining enzyme: cholesterol synthesis
HMG CoA reductase
Amnt of ATP produced/glucose :
(1) malate aspartate shuttle (heart and liver)
(2) glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle (muscle)
(3) anaerobic glycolysis
(1) malate aspartate shuttle (heart and liver): 32
(2) glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle (muscle): 30
(3) anaerobic glycolysis: 2 NET
Hexokinase
(a) location in body
(b) affinity (Km)
(c) capacity (Vm)
(d) inducibility by insulin?
(e) feedback inhibition?
(a) location in body: ubiquitous
(b) affinity (Km): high
(c) capacity: low
(d) inducibility by insulin? No
(e) yes (G6P)
Glucokinase
(a) location in body
(b) affinity (Km)
(c) capacity (Vm)
(d) inducibility by insulin?
(e) feedback inhibition?
(a) location in body: liver and beta cells of pancreas
(b) affinity (Km): low
(c) capacity (Vm): high
(d) inducibility by insulin?: yes
(e) no
Rotenon, CN-, antimyinA, CO: oxidative phosphyrlation poison class and effect
Directly inhibit electron transport, causing a decrease proton gradient and block ATP synthesis
(b)
Oligomycin: oxidative phosphorylation poison class and effect
Direclty inhibit mitochondrial ATPase causing an incr proton gradient. No ATP produced b/c electron transport stops
2,4 DNP, aspirin, thermogenin brown fat: oxidative phosphylation poison class and effect
Incr permeability of membrane ; causing a decr proton gradient and incr O2 consumption. ATP synth stops but electron transport continues
Pyruvate decarboxylase
(a) location
(b) rxn catalyzed
(c) enzyme requirements
(a) mitochondria
(b) pyruvate to oxaloacetate
(c) biotin, ATP, ATP
PEP carboxykinase
(a) location
(b) rxn catalyzed
(c) enzyme requirement
(a) cytosol
(b) oxaloacetate to phophoenolpyruvate
(c) requires GTP
Fructose 1,6 BP
(a) location
(b) rxn catalyzed
(a) cytosol
(b) fructose 1,6BP to frucose 6P
Glucose 6 phosphatase
(a) location
(b) rxn catalyzed
(a) in ER
(b) G6P to glucose
Main purpose of HMP (pentose phosphate) shunt
Produce NADPH
Processes for which NADPH is required
Fatty acid and steroid synthesis
Glutathione reduction inside RBC's
Sites of HMP shunt
Lactating mammary glands, liver, adrenal cortex, RBC's
Key enzymes in HMP shunt (products of rxn)
(a) oxidative phase
(b) nonoxidative phase
(a) irreversible; glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (NADPH)
(b) transketolase (requires thiamine)-(ribose 5 phosphate, G3P, G6P)
Essential AA's
(a) glucogenic only
(b) glucogenic/ketogenic
(c) ketogenic only
(a) met, val, arg, his
(b) ile, phe, thr, trp
(c) leu, lys
Derivatives of phenylalanine
Tyrosine to dopa and thyroxine
Dopa to melanin and dopamine
Dopamine to NE
NE to epi
Derivatives of tryptophan
Niacin to NAD+/NADP+
Serotonin to melatonin
Derivatives of histadine
Histamine
Derivatives of glycine
Porphyrin (to heme)
Derivatives of arginine
Creatinine
Urea
Nitric oxide
Derivatives of glutamate
GABA
Glutathione
Anabolic effects of insulin
Increase glucose transport
Increase glycogen storage and synthesis
Increase triglyceride storage and synthesis
Increase Na+ retention in kidneys
Inc protein synthesis (muscles)
Incr cellular uptake of K+
Location of Glut1
RBC's
Brain
Location of glut 2
Beta islet cells
Liver
Kidney
NOTE: bidirectional
Location of glut 4
Adipose tissue
Skeletal muscle
NOTE: insulin responsive
Fuel used during exercise
(1) first 100 s (sprint)
(2) minutes later (long run)
(3) hours (marathon)
(1) first 100 s: stored ATP, creatine phosphate, anaerobic glycolysis
(2) minutes later (long run): above +oxidative phosphorylation
(3) hours (marathon): glycogen, FFA oxidation; glucose conserved for final sprint
Fuel used during starvation and fasting: Day 1-3
Priority to supply brain and RBC's
Blood glucose maintained by:
(1) hepatic glycogenolysis
(2) adipose release of GGA
(3) muscle and liver shifting fuel use from glucose to FFA
Fuel used during starvation and fasting: after day 3
Hepatic formation of ketone bodies (supply brain, heart)
Fuel used during starvation and fasting: several weeks
Keton bodies main source for brain and heart.
Survival time determined by amnt of fat stores.
After depleted, vital protein degradation accelerates (organ failure and death)
Name the essential fatty acids
Linoleic and linolenic acids
Arachidonic acid if linoleic acid is absent
Major apolipoproteins and fct
A-I: activates LCAT
B-100: Binds to LDLR,mediates VLDL secr
C-II: Co-factor for lipoprotein lipase
B-48: mediates chylomicron secretion
E: mediates extra (remnant) uptake