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127 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the main function of the kidneys?
Keep the blood in homeostatic balance
What are the 4 functions of the kidneys?
1. Remove nitrogenous wastes (urea)
2. Regulate blood pH
3. Maintain plasama osmolarity and electrolyte composition
4. Maintain blood volume and pressure
What do the kidneys filter and produce?
Filter blood and produce urine
What does the urinary bladder do?
stores urine
What does the urethra do?
Carries urine out of the body
What do the ureters do?
Transport urine from kidneys to bladder
The renal arteries branch off what?
Abdominal aorta
The renal veins drain into what?
Inferior vena cava
2 kidneys receive about how much of the cardiac output? How much blood per minute?
1/4 of cardiac output = 1200 ml blood per minute
How do the kidneys cleanse so much blood?
Large surface area
90% of blood goes where in the kidneys?
90% of blood goes to the renal cortex which is the outer part of the kidney
What are nephrons?
They are the functional units of the kidney
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
What do nephrons do?
Filter blood and form urine
Nephrons are where what two systems meet?
Renal and Cardiovascular systems meet
How many nephrons are there per kidney?
Roughly 1 million
What are the two main parts of the nephron?
1. Glomerulus
2. Renal Tubule
What is the glomerulus?
It is a ball of glomerular capillaries
What are peritubular capillaries?
Capillaries that intertwine with the renal tubule
The renal tubule begins with what?
Globerular or Bowman's Capsule which surrounds the glomerular capillaries
The renal tubule continues into what 4 major things?
1. Proximal convoluted tubule
2. Loop of Henle
3. Distal convoluted tubule
4. Collecting ducts
What makes the striations visible in the kidneys?
The various collecting ducts
Collecting ducts drain urine into what? Then what?
Drains urine into the ureter then to the bladder
What two capillary beds are associated with the nephron?
Glomerular capillaries and the peritubular capillaries
Glomerular capillaries are specialized to do what?
Specialized to filter blood
Blood enters the glomerular capillaries through what? It exits through what?
Enters through the Afferent Arteriole and exits through the Efferent arteriole
Both the afferent and efferent arterioles have what kind of muscle?
Smooth muscle!
Why do the afferent and efferent arterioles have smooth muscle?
So they can vasoconstrict or vasodilate to regulate how fast or how slow blood is filtered
What 3 characteristics does glomerular capillaries have?
1. Smooth muscle
2. Under high pressure
3. Fenestrated, very leaky
Systemic capillaries start with what at one end and end with what on the other?
Start with arteriole and end with venule
Systemic capillaries are only somewhat permeable to what?
Water and solutes
In the kidneys, the efferent arteriole continues on to form what?
The peritubular capillaries
Peritubular capillaries intertwine with the renal tubule to allow what?
The exchange of water and solutes (reabsorption and secretion)
What are 3 main differences between peritubular capillaries and glomerular capillaries?
1. P capillaries are under lower pressure
2. Not as leaky as G capillaries
3. P capillaries drain into a venule
What are the 3 major renal processes?
1. glomerular filtration
2. Tubular reabsorption
3. Tubular secretion
During Glomerular Filtration, water and solutes are pushed FROM what INTO what?
Water and solutes are pushed FROM the glomerular capillaries INTO the glomerular capsule
During Glomerular Filtration, water and solutes become what?
After Glomerular Filtration, what must happen to the filtrate?
Must be processed some more
During Tubular Reabsorption, water and solutes move FROM what INTO what?
Water and solutes move FROM renal tubule INTO peritubular capillaries
During Tubular Secretion, solutes move FROM what INTO what?
Solutes move FROM the peritubular capillaries INTO the renal tubule
What is the purpose of Tubular Secretion?
It is the body's second chance to remove solutes from the blood
What is filtered in the blood? What are the exceptions?
Everything! Except large plasma proteins, blood cells, and platelets
What are the main solutes that are filtered from the blood during Glomerular Filtration?
Glucose and amino acids
What are the main ions being filtered from the blood during Glomerular Filtration?
Na+, K+, Ca2+, H+, Cl-, HCO3-
What are the main waste products being filtered from the blood during glomerular filtration?
Urea and uric acid
Is glomerular filtration an active or passive process?
Is glomerular filtration selective or not very selective?
NOT VERY selective
Glomerular filtration is the net result of what?
Three pressures
What are the three pressures that results in glomerular filtration?
1. Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure
2. Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure
3. Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure
What is Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure?
It is the blood pressure that favors filtration
What is Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure?
It is pressure caused by solutes drawing water back and opposes filtration
What is Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure?
It is the back pressure that opposes filtration
What is the net filtration pressure in mm Hg?
What is Net Filtration Pressure?
It is the Glomerular Hydrostatic pressure minus the osmotic pressure and capsule hydrostatic pressure
Of the three pressures during Glomerular Filtration, which one favors filtration?
Only the Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure
Which pressure is the back pressure that inhibits the Glomerular Filtration Rate?
Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure
What is the Glomerular Filtration Rate?
It is the rate at which filtrate forms
NFP equals what?
NFP equals GFR times resistance
If pressure increases, what happens to flow?
Flow increases as well
How can changes in GFR occur?
Any change in the 3 pressures can change the GFR
Which pressure is the most likely to change?
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
If BP increases, what happens to GFR?
GFR increases as well
How much blood is in the human body?
Roughly 5 liters
What is the typical GFR?
180 liters filtrate per day or 125 ml/min
Why must GFR be regulated?
To allow adequate time for reabsorption and secretion
What is the urine output per day?
1.5 liters per day
99% of filtrate is what?
If GFR is too high, what happens?
There is not enough time for reabsorption and you lose valuable solutes and ions in the urine
If GFR is too low, what happens?
There is too much time for reabsorption and you gain unwanted wastes in the blood
Afferent and Efferent arterioles operate independently or dependently to control GFR?
What is one way the body regulates the GFR?
Through the Myogenic Mechanism
What is the Myogenic Mechanism?
It is a negative feedback mechanism where the smooth muscle in the afferent arteriole responds to moderate changes in blood pressure
If systemic BP decreases, what happens?
There is an immediate drop in GFR and less stretch on afferent arteriole.
If the systemic BP decreases, what vasodilates?
Afferent Arteriole vasodilates (relaxes)
When the systemic BP decreases and the afferent arteriole vasodilates, what occurs?
Blood flow and GFR increase back to normal
If BP increases, what happens?
GFR increases and more stretch on the afferent arteriole
If the systemic BP increases, what vasoconstricts?
The Afferent Arteriole vasoconstricts
When the systemic BP increases and the afferent arteriole vasoconstricts, what occurs?
Blood flow and GFR decrease back to normal
What is the sympathetic effect on GFR?
Extrinsic neural control where during an emergency sympathetic nerves fire and cause vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles and GFR decreases
What happens to the blood when sympathetic nerves fire during an emergency?
Blood is rerouted away from kidneys to other parts of the body like the brain and muscles
What type of cells make up the walls of the renal tubule?
Epithelial cells!
Tubular reabsorption includes what types of transport?
Active and Passive
What are the two routes solutes and the like can take during tubular reabsorption?
Transcellular (through the cells) and Paracellular (between the cells)
What is the usual route for solutes and the like to travel during tubular reabsorption?
What is transcellular?
Through the cells
What is Paracellular?
Between the cells
What are the 4 main movements via transcellular route?
1. Transport across the luminal membrane
2. Diffusion through the cytosol
3. Transport across the basolateral membrane
4. Movement through interstitial fluid into the capillary
What is the main movement via the paracellular route?
Movement through the leaky tight junctions between cells
What is the site of the most reabsorption?
The main site of reabsorption is the Proximal Tubule
What three things normally get reabsorbed?
Nutrients like glucose and amino acids, ions, and small proteins
Does reabsorption at the PCT depend on hormones?
What is the main reason why Na+ reabsorption is so important?
Couldn't depolarize a neuron or muscle cell without it
What is the other reason why Na+ reabsorption is so important?
It provides the energy and the means for reabsorbing most other substances
With diabetes mellitus, carriers during the reabsorption at the proximal tubule become what?
Overwhelmed to where it can't reabsorb all the glucose
What results when the carriers are overwhelmed and can't reabsorb glucose?
Glucosuria (glucose lost in urine) and polyuria (water follows glucose)
Reabsorption of HCO3- depends on what ion to be reabsorbed as well?
Reabsorption of HCO3- is coupled with what ion being secreted?
When blood is too acidic, is more HCO3- reabsorbed or secreted?
When blood is too acidic, is more H+ reabsorbed or secreted?
Why is water reabsorbed by osmosis?
Water follows Na+ and other solutes
What is Urea?
It is a lipid soluble waste product
Urea follows water by what?
"Solvent Drag"
Cl- passively follows what ion?
Other ions including K+ are passively reabsorbed down what?
Their concentration gradients!
Kidneys work hard to maintain what ion's concentration gradient?
The DECENDING limb of the loop of Henle is freely permeable to what? What is it not permeable to?
Permeable to H2O, NOT permeable to NaCl
The Ascending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to what? What is it not permeable to?
Permeable to NaCl and NOT permeable to water
The longer the loop of Henle is...
The more concentrated the urine can be!
Reabsorption and secretion at the Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Duct is regulated by what?
The loop of Henle sets up what?
Sets up a mechanism to produce concentrated urine
What are the two hormones that regulate reabsorption and secretion at the DCT and collecting Duct?
Aldosterone and Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
What does Aldosterone control?
Aldosterone controls the final reabsorption of Na+
What does Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) control?
Controls final reabsorption of water
What is the stimulus for aldosterone secretion?
Low Na+ or high K+
Where is Aldosterone secreted from?
Adrenal Cortex
Aldosterone targets what?
Distal part of DCT and collecting ducts
Aldosterone stimulates what?
Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion
Aldosterone causes what to occur?
More Na+ returns to the blood and more K+ is lost in the urine
What does ADH prevent?
ADH prevents diuresis which is the large loss of water in the urine
What is the stimulus for ADH secretion?
Dehydration and or high plasma Na+
ADH targets what?
ADH targets the collecting ducts to make them more permeable to water
ADH causes what to occur?
ADH causes water reabsorption to increase which lowers the plasma osmolarity
ADH causes what to occur to urine secretion?
ADH causes urine secretion to be scant and concentrated
What is the main site of secretion?
Tubular Secretion eliminates what substances that have been passively reabsorbed?
Urea and uric acid
Tubular Secretion also disposes of what kind of substances?
substances like drugs that are too large to filter
How does Tubular Secretion control blood pH?
It controls pH by changing H+ secretion