Energy: Reflection: Communication, Homeostasis And Energy

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Register to read the introduction… j. Outline the problems that arise from kidney failure and discuss the use of renal dialysis and transplants for the treatment of kidney failure
Kidney failure
Most common causes are: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and infection.
It means that the body is unable to remove excess water, urea and salts.
Also, the body is unable to regulate the levels of water and salts in the body.
Dialysis
It removes wastes, excess fluid and salt from the body by passing the blood over a partially permeable dialysis membrane which allows exchanges between the blood and dialysis fluid.
Because the dialysis fluid contains the right concentrations of salts, urea, water and other substances in the blood plasma, it means that any substances in excess will diffuse across the membrane into the dialysis fluid and any that there is not enough of will diffuse into the blood.
It has to be combined with a carefully planned diet.
Haemodialysis
Blood from a vein is passed through a machine that has an artificial membrane.
Heparin is added to avoid clotting.
It is usually performed at a clinic, three times a week for several hours.
Peritoneal
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After several hours the solution is usually drained.
It is usually performed in several consecutive sessions daily at home or at work and you can walk round while it is being done.
Kidney transplantation
The old kidneys are usually left in place unless they are likely to cause infection or are cancerous.
They kidney can be from a living relative or a dead person.
The patient is under anaesthetic and the new kidney is places in the lower abdomen where it is attached to the blood supply and the bladder.
Patients are given immunosuppressant drugs to help prevent rejection.
k. Describe how urine samples can be used to test for pregnancy and detect misuse of anabolic steroids
Pregnancy testing
Human embryos secrete human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG).
Because it is a relatively small glycoprotein it can be detected in urine as early as 6 days after conception.
In home pregnancy testing, a portion of the strip is placed in urine.
If any hCG is present it will complementary bind to a monoclonal antibody which has a blue bead attached.
The hCG antibody complex moves up the stick and attaches to a band of immobilised enzymes forming a blue line.
Anabolic steroid

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