Hepatoxicity And Nephrotoxicity Case Study

Decent Essays
1. Describe what may occur if hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity occur as a result of drug use.
Hepatotoxicity is when the liver detoxifies and metabolizes foreign chemicals in the blood. It can be damaged by drugs or their metabolic products. If liver cells are injured, enzymatic abnormalities usually occur which is when fatty liver deposits form, hepatitis occurs, and in the worst cases liver failure can result. Nephrotoxicity occurs when nephron tubules and/or filtration abilities of the kidneys become altered. For example, sulfonamides can crystallize in the kidney and form stones that obstruct urine flow. 2. Describe the three major side effects that may occur with antibiotic use.
The major side effects of drugs fall into one
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These occur on various parts of the body, such as the buttocks, armpit and back of the neck and are often caused by skin rubbing against other skin or clothing. A carbuncle is a deeper lesion created by the aggregation of a cluster of furuncles into one large mass. These are usually found in the areas of thick, tough skin, such as the back of the neck. They are extremely painful and can be fatal in elderly patients if the carbuncle gives rise to systemic disease.

12. What is osteomyelitis and what are its symptoms?
Osteomyelitis occurs when bacteria invade the bones. An abscess forms in the bone and results initially in a tender lump. It can lead to necrosis or breakage of the bone; symptoms include fever, chills, pain and muscle spasms. These are most often seen in growing children, adolescents and IV drug users. Secondary osteomyelitis can develop after a compound fracture or surgery in cancer or diabetic patients.

13. Name and describe the cell surface antigens and virulence factors of Streptococcus
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They are caused when virulent Streptococci invade the skin or mucous membranes of the throat and an inflammatory primary lesion forms. One gets erysipelas when the bacteria enters through a cut or sore.

16. Describe the long-term complications of Group A infections.
The long-term complications of Group A infections can develop within a few weeks and include rheumatic fever which is a delayed inflammatory condition of the joints, heart and subcutaneous tissues. Major issues are carditis, which is an abnormal ECG. Other conditions include painful arthritis, cholera, nodules under the skin and fever that can last 3-6 months without any lasting damage. Some patients can develop severe carditis, have extensive damage to heart valves and muscle and the extent of the damage is usually not known until middle age at which point patients often need valve replacement surgery.

17. Describe the growth and physical characteristics of Neisseria.
One distinguishing feature of Neisseriae is the bean shape. They do not develop flagella or spores, but the pathogenic forms develop a capsule and are gram-negative. They have an outer cell membrane and have lipopolysaccharides in the cell wall, as well as fimbriae. Neisseria are aerobic or microaerophilic and have an oxidative form of metabolism. They also produce catalase and various enzymes for fermenting various carbohydrates such as cytochrome

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