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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What kind of system is the nervous system?
It is a communication system
What is the main difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system?
The difference is the speed of the responses.
How fast are hormone actions?
Minutes to hours to days
How fast are nerve impulses?
1 milliseconds
What is a neuron?
A neuron is a individual nerve cell
What region is the axon? What does it do?
It is the region in the middle that generates impulses and conduction.
What is a nerve?
A nerve is a bundle of neurons (axon) in the peripheral nervous system
What is the peripheral nervous system?
All neurons outside the brain and spinal cord
What is the central nervous system?
Brain and spinal cord
What are tracts?
Bundle of nerves in he brain
What does innervate mean?
Innervate means provide with a nerve supply
What is a synapse?
A synapse is the point of closest contact between two neurons
Where is a neurotransmitter secreted from?
It is secreted from a presynaptic neuron
What does the NT do after it's been secreted from the presynaptic neuron?
It binds to post-synaptic neurons which may excite or inhibit firing of APs.
What do sensory receptors respond to?
They respond to internal and external changes
What pathway does information carried by the sensory neurons travel on? Where does it go?
Afferent pathway. Carried TOWARD the CNS
Where do association neurons carry out integration entirely within?
Entirely within the CNS!
What 3 processes are part of integration?
1. Interpretation of sensory input
2. Store and retrieve information, make decisions
3. Initiate motor output
What do motor neurons do?
Motor neurons signal to effectors to produce a response
What are effectors?
Muscles and glands
Motor neurons send information on what pathway? Where does it go?
Efferent pathways. Information travels AWAY from CNS
What does SAME stand for?
Sensory Afferent Motor Efferent
What does the structure of neurons allow neurons to do?
Structure of neurons lets them carry out their functions
Neurons are what kind of cells?
Excitable cells
When neurons are stimulated, how do they respond?
Neurons respond by firing action potentials
What are action potentials?
APs are long distance electrical signals
What is a multipolar neuron?
A multipolar neuron is a neuron with two or more dendrites coming off the neuron cell body
What are the most common neurons?
Association and motor neurons
What are the four parts of a multipolar neuron?
Cell body, dendrites, Axon, and Axon terminals
What is the biosynthetic center? What does it do?
The biosynthetic center is in the cell body that carries out cellular functions such as protein synthesis and NT synthesis
Dendrites and the cell body make up what region on a neuron?
Receptive region
What are dendrites?
Dendrites are short cytoplasmic processes
What do dendrites do?
Dendrites are the "antennae" to receive input from other neurons or sensory receptors
What do dendrites and cell bodies produce?
Dendrites produce excitatory post-synaptic potentials and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials
How many axons are there per cell?
How long are axons?
Axons can be short or long (up to 3 feet).
Axons arise from what part of a neuron?
Axons arise from the axon hillock
What is the axon hillock?
It is the trigger zone where action potentials are initiated
Where are action potentials initiated?
At the axon hillock, or trigger zone.
The axon makes up what region on a neuron?
Axons make up the conducting region on neurons
What are axon terminals?
Axon terminals are the secretory region of neurons that secrete NT molecules.
What are NTs?
NTs are chemicals that may excite or inhibit the post-synaptic neuron
What does the NT Acetylcholine (ACh) do?
ACh causes skeletal muscles to contract
What does the NT Norepinephrine (NE) do?
NE causes smooth muscle to contract
What cells form myelin in the PNS?
Schwann cells
What cells form myelin in the CNS?
Schwann cells wraps around the axon to form what?
To form concentric layers of phospholipids
What is the purpose of myelin?
Electrical Insulation
What are the functions of myelin?
Electrically insulates the axon and to increase the speed of nerve impulse transmission
How fast do unmyelinated fiber conducts?
Unmyelinated fiber conducts APs at 1 meter/sec
How fast does myelinated fiber conducts?
Myelinated fiber conducts APs at up to 150 meters/sec
Neuron signals occur to due to what?
Ions entering and leaving
What is a graded potential?
A graded potential is a short distance electrical signal
Where do graded potentials occur?
Cell body/Dendrites in the receptive region
What is the purpose of GPs?
Excite or inhibit action potentials
What are action potentials?
APs are long distance electrical signal
Where do APs originate?
Trigger zone on the axon
What is the purpose of APs?
To set off NT secretion
Where do NTs originate?
NTs originate in the axon terminals
What is the purpose of NTs?
NTs excite or inhibit post-synaptic neuron. NTs set off graded potentials
What is another name for graded potentials?
Post-synaptic potentials
What sets off the three signals in a neuron?
The opening of gated ion channels
What do ions do when gated channels open?
Ions diffuse through the channel down their concentration gradients
How do ions diffuse?
Channel mediated facilitated diffusion
GP occur due to the diffusion of what ions?
Na+, K+, or Cl-
APs occur due to the diffusion of what ions?
Due ONLY to Na+ and K+
NT secretion occurs due to the diffusion of what ions?
Ca+2 (into the cell)
Ion diffusion in the receptive region sets off what signal?
Graded potential
Leak channels are always what?
Leak channels are always open!
Where are leak channels located?
All over the neuron
There are more leak channels for what ion?
More leak channels for K+
What are leak channels responsible for?
Leak channels are responsible for the resting membrane potential
What are the two main types of gated channels?
Chemically-gated channels and voltage-gated channels
What is another name for chemically gated channels?
Ligand-gated channels
What chemical opens chemical-gated channels?
Where are chemically gated channels located?
In the plasma membrane of the receptor region in neurons
Voltage-gated channels open and close due to what?
They open and close due to voltage changes
What is voltage?
Voltage is the separation of charge across the membrane
The inside of a neuron has normally what charge?
Negative charge
When the inside of a neuron is negative, the voltage gated channels are what?
When the inside of the neuron becomes more positive, the channels what?
Na+ and K+ voltage gated channels are located where in a neuron?
ONLY located on the Axon
Which ion voltage gated channel opens first?
Which ion voltage gated channel opens second?
Voltage-gated channels are responsible for what?
Ca+2 voltage gated channels are located where in the neuron?
Located on the axon terminals
When do Ca+2 voltage-gated channels open when AP arrives and allows Ca+2 to do what?
Allows Ca+2 to enter the neuron
Ca+2 voltage-gated channels trigger what to occur?
Triggers NT secretion
What are the 3 overlapping functions of the nervous system?
1. Sensory Input
2. Integration
3. Motor Output
What is the immediate effect in the post-synaptic neuron when the chemically gated channels open?
Graded potential!