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141 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What does immunity mean?

Resistance to disease
What are two intrinsic systems of the Immune system?
1. Innate
2. Adaptive
Is the Innate defense system specific or nonspecific?
Is the adaptive defense system specific or nonspecific?
Immunity has how many lines of defense?
Innate defense system includes which lines of defense?
The first two lines of defense
What is the First Line of Defense?
It is the surface barriers: external body membranes (skin and mucosae)
What is the Second Line of Defense?
It is the internal cellular and chemical defenses
What is included the Second Line of Defense, cell wise?
Antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells
What is the most important mechanism in the Second Line of Defense?
Which line of defense is in the Adaptive Defense system?
The Third Line of Defense!
What does the Third Line of Defense include?
Humoral and Cellular Immunity
The Third Line of Defense attacks what substances?
Particular foreign substances
Which defense system is quicker to respond?
Innate Defense System
Fever is part of what defense? What line of defense?
Innate Defense in the 2nd line of defense
Do Innate Defenses create memory when they defending cells?
Which defense creates memory?
ONLY Adaptive Defense!
Mucous membranes line what 5 organs?
1. Nasal and oral cavities
2. Respiratory Passages
3. Digestive Tract
4. Urinary Tract
5. Vagina and Uterus
What are the 4 surface barriers in the first line of defense?
1. Skin
2. Mucous Membranes
3. Acidic Environment
4. Fluid flow or dilution
What does an acidic environment do on the skin?
Inhibits or destroys microorganisms
What does the vagina secrete as part of the first line of defense?
Lactic Acid
Lysozyme of what two things kill bacteria?
Saliva and Tears
What are two defenses that are part of the second line of defense?
1. Phagocytes
2. Inflammation
Phagocytes destroy microbes by what?
What are two types of phagocytes?
1. Macrophages
2. Neutrophils
What are Macrophages?
They develop from monocytes (WBC) to become chief phagocytic cells
What are the two types of Macrophages?
1. Free Macrophages
2. Fixed Macrophages
What are free macrophages?
Movely freely through tissue spaces like in alveoli
What are fixed macrophages?
Permanent residents of some organs like in brain and liver
What are Neutrophils?
They are phagocytes that become phagocytic when they encounter infectious material in tissue
Phagocytes may also do what besides engulf and digest cells?
May release oxidizing chemicals: hydrogen peroxide and a substance identical to bleach
What is the Inflammatory Response triggered?
Whenever the body tissues are injured or infected
What are 3 purposes of inflammation?
1. Disposes of cell debris and pathogens
2. Prevents the spread of damaging agents
3. Sets the stage for healing
What are 4 cardinal signs of acute inflammation?
Heat and Redness
Pain and Swelling
What is the 5th sometimes cardinal sign of acute inflammation?
Impairment of functions
What are the 3 events in inflammation?
1. Injury occurs
2. Damaged tissue releases chemical mediators
3. Chemical mediators cause a variety of effects
What chemical mediators are released by damaged tissues?
Histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, complement
What else can release the chemical mediators that are released by damaged tissues?
Phagocytes, lymphocytes and other cells
What are the three main effects of chemical mediators released during inflammation?
1. Vasodilation
2. Increased capillary permeability
3. Phagocyte Mobilization
When arterioles dilate due to inflammation, what occurs?
Local hyperemia (blood flow) which causes heat and redness
Increased heat and redness increases what? Which causes what?
Increases metabolic rate of defending cells which promotes healing
What is formed when chemical mediators make capillaries more permeable?
Exudate forms when fluids leave capillaries and enter the IF
What is exudate?
Exudate contains proteins, clotting factors and antibodies
What is the purpose of exudate?
Brings oxygen and nutrients to damaged tissue
Fluid in the interstitial space causes what?
Pain and swelling which may limit movement
How does the body remove exudate from the IF?
Picked up by the lymphatic capillaries and cleansed by the lymph nodes
Chemical mediators cause phagocytes to become mobilize and Leukocytosis-inducing factor causes what?
More leukocytes (WBCs) to enter the blood
What are the four steps of Phagocyte Mobilization?
Leukocytosis, Margination, Diapedesis, and Chemotaxis
What is Leukocytosis?
Neutrophils enter blood from bone marrow
What is Margination?
Neutrophils cling to capillary wall
What is Diapedesis?
Neutrophils flatten and squeeze out of capillaries
What is Chemotaxis?
Neutrophils are attracted to injury site
Inflammatory chemicals diffusing from the inflamed site act as what kind of agents?
Chemotactic agents
What arrive first as part of Phagocyte Mobilization?
Neutrophils but quickly die off
What arrive after Neutrophils in Phagocyte Mobilization?
Monocytes differentiate into what to ill microbes, etc in Phagocyte Mobilization?
Differentiate into Macrophages!
Pus may be formed during what part of Phagocyte Mobilization?
Phagocytosis of pathogens and dead tissue cells
An abscess may form due to what occurring?
Area not completely cleared of debris
Antimicrobial Proteins in the 2nd line of Defense attack and inhibit what?
Attack microorganisms directly and inhibit their reproduction
What are interferons?
They are groups of proteins that binds to an uninfected cell to turn on genes for antiviral proteins
When Host Cell 1 becomes infected, interferons come where?
The host cell itself makes interferons which then go on to bind to host cell 2 which induces synthesis of protective proteins
What is Complement?
Complex group of plasma proteins
What does Complement cause?
Causes cascade of events:
1. Amplifies all aspects of inflammatory response
2. Kills bacteria by cell lysis
3. Enhances nonspecific and specific defenses
What is Opsonization?
It is the coating of a pathogen surface which enhances phagocytosis
What is a Fever?
It is the systemic response to invading microorganisms
During a fever, leukocytes and macrophages secrete what when exposed to foreign substances?
What are Pyrogens?
They act on the body's thermostat in the hypothalamus to cause a fever
Where do Pyrogens act?
On the Hypothalamus
What are two benefits of a moderate fever?
1. Liver and spleen to sequester iron and zinc (which is needed by microorganisms)
2. increases metabolic rate = increased repairing
The Adaptive immune response has what three things?
Specific, systemic and has memory
What are the two separate overlapping arms of Adaptive Immune Response?
1. Humoral immunity
2. Cellular Immunity
Is Humoral immunity antibody-mediated or cell-mediated?
Is Cellular Immunity antibody-mediated or cell-mediated?
Antibodies are what type of molecule?
Humoral Immunity is carried out by what?
B Lymphocytes!
B Lymphocytes produce what?
What does Humoral mean?
Carried in the blood
Antibodies bind to what type of invaders BEFORE or AFTER they enter body cells?
Antibodies bind to extracellular invaders BEFORE they enter the body cells
What do Antibodies do?
They inactivate invaders and target them for destruction
Cellular Immunity is carried out by what?
T Lymphocytes which DO NOT produce antibodies
Why is Cellular Immunity cell-mediated?
Because protective factor are the T cells which personally attack and destroy other cells
What type of cells do T Cells destroy?
Infected cells, cancer cells, foreign cells
What activates lymphocytes to mount an immune response?
What are antigens doing to lymphocytes?
Substances that mobilize lymphocytes and provoke an immune response
What are antigens?
Large, complex molecules such as proteins or sugars on the coat of a virus or bacterial cell wall
Antigens are seen by lymphocytes as what?
Antigen comes from what two words?
Do all lymphocytes make antibodies?
NO! Only B Cells but T Cells respond to antigens
What are antigenic determinants?
Smaller parts of the entire antigen
Each antigenic determinant can mobilize what?
A different lymphocyte
Different lymphocytes do what?
Recognize each determinant to make antibodies against each
What are Self-Antigens?
MHC proteins which allow the body to see other "self cells" so they're not attacked
If body cells become infected, what do MHC proteins do?
They become altered and appear as "self/nonself"
Altered MHC proteins will be what?
Will be recogonized and attacked by lymphocytes
Why are Antigen-Presenting Cells like Dendritic Cells essential in immune response?
Because they present antigens to the lymphocytes
What are lymphocytes?
White blood cells
Where do lymphocytes originate?
Bone marrow
The bone marrow produces what kind of lymphocytes?
Immature Lymphocytes
After lymphocytes become educated, what are they?
Where do B cells mature?
In the bone marrow
Where do T cells mature?
What is immunocompetence?
Lymphocytes have gained receptors on their cell surface that let them recognize and bind to specific antigens
What is self-tolerance?
Lymphocytes become self-tolerant when they become mature and thus unresponsive to self-antigens
Naive B and T cells are exported where?
Lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphoid organs
TRUE OR FALSE: Lymphocytes must encounter their antigen BEFORE they become immunocompetent.
FALSE! They have their receptors for their Ag before they meet it
Immune system has tremendous capacity to do what?
Mount an attack against up to a billion different Ags
Only a few lymphocytes will do what? Most remain what?
Few lymphocytes will encounter their Ag. Most remain idle
Both B and T cells undergo activation when what occurs?
They encounter their specific Ag
What is the activation process called of lymphocytes?
Clonal selection and differentiation
Clonal selection and differentiation starts with what?
Antigen Challenge
What is Antigen Challenge?
It is the first encounter between a naive immunocompetent lymphocyte and its specific antigen in the spleen or lymph node
Humoral Immunity is "humoral" because why?
Because of the large number of circulating antibodies in the blood
In Clonal Selection of B cells, the B cell divides and what is formed?
Clones are formed with identical receptors for the same antigen
What are usually required to help B cells achieve full activation?
Helper T Cells
Humoral immunity exists once you have what?
Once you have circulating antibodies
B Cell Clones differentiate into what two types of cells?
Plasma cells and Memory B Cells
What are plasma cells?
Effector B Cells that secrete antibody molecules
What are Memory B Cells?
Cells that are primed to respond to the same antigen
Plasma cells secrete specific antibodies at what rate per second for how long?
2000 molecules per second for 4 or 5 days
The secreted antibodies from the plasma cells do what three things?
1. Circulate in the blood or lymph
2. Bind to free antigens
3. Mark the antigens for destruction
If you mount a secondary immune response and you have memory cells, what happens?
Secondary response is faster and stronger than the primary response
Clones cells are what to their ancestral cells?
In Immunological Memory, when does the primary immune response occur?
It occurs on the first exposure to a specific antigen and memory cells are made
What is the lag period of the Primary immune response?
3 to 6 days before Abs are secreted
Peak levels in Primary Immune Response is reached when?
Reached in 10 days
After the 10th day in Primary Immune Response, what occurs?
Ab levels quickly decline
In Immunological Memory, when does the secondary immune response occur?
Occurs on re-exposure to the same antigen
Sensitized memory B cells can respond within what time in the secondary immune response?
Within hours!
During the secondary immune response, antibodies bind more strongly or less strongly?
More Strongly!
Antibody levels can remain WHAT during the secondary immune response?
Can remain high for weeks to months!
Antibodies are what type of molecule made by who?
Proteins made by plasma cells (B cells)
Do Antibodies destroy invaders?
Antibodies and antigens form complexes through what 4 things?
1. Precipitation
2. Lysis
3. Agglutination
4. Neutralization
What is Neutralization?
Abs coat a bacterial toxin or virus to become neutral
What is Agglutination?
Abs complex with proteins on a cell surface and cause cells to clump
What is precipitation?
Abs complex with small free floating Ags causing them to precipitate
What is Lysis?
Complement being activated which makes them lyse
Ag-Ab complexes enhance and activate what?
Enhances Phagocytosis and Acivates complement which also enhances phagocysis, inflammation, and lysis
Type O lack what? Which makes them what?
Protein antigen on the surface which makes them the universal donor
Type AB has what? Which makes them what?
Has both types of proteins on the surface which makes them the universal receivers
If blood type B got blood type A transfusion, B lymphocytes make Abs against A blood cells do what?
Abs to make the donor RBCs clump. THIS WOULD BE BAD.