• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How does Passive Humoral Immunity get Abs?
From outside source: Naturally acquired and Artificially acquired
How does Active Humoral Immunity get Abs?
Makes own Abs
Which Humoral Immunity, Passive or Active, has memory created?
Only Active
What is Naturally acquired Active Immunity?
You get a disease, mount an immune response and make antibodies to create memory
What is Artificially acquired Active Immunity?
Response to a vaccine of dead or attenuated pathogens
What are 2 benefits to vaccines?
1. Provokes a primary immune response to make antibodies without the symptoms of being sick
Are Passive Humoral Immunity antibodies temporary or long term immunity?
Temporary Immunity
Can outside antibodies help you if you're challenged later by the same Ag?
What is Naturally acquired Passive Immunity?
Antibodies delivered to a fetus via the placenta or infant through milk
What is Artificially acquired Passive Immunity?
Injectiong of immune serum, such as gamma globulin which contains Abs of immune animal
Is Passive Humoral Immunity immediate or slow to react?
Immediate but temporary
Why does Passive Humoral Immunity end?
Antibodies become degraded
T cells provide defense against what?
Intracellular antigens
Immunocompetent T cells are seeded into what two places to wait for Ag to be presented to them?
Spleen and Lymph Nodes
What are the two main types of T Cells?
CD8 cells and CD4 sells
What are CD8 cells?
They are the killer cells that can directly atack and destroy foreign cells
What are CD4 cells?
They are helper T cells that help activate cytotoxic T cells, B cells, Dendritic Cells and macrophages
CD8 cells become what?
Cytotoxic cells
CD4 cells become what?
Helper T cells
Activated T cells become what two things?
Effector T cells and memory T cells
What are the two main types of Antigen-Presenting Cells?
1. Dendritic Cells
2. Macrophages
What are Dendritic Cells?
They are cells that internalize pathogens by phagocytosis and carry antigens to T cells in the lymphoid organs
What are macrophages?
Mostly fixed in the lymphoid organs and connective tissue and present Ags to T cells there
What do Dendritic Cells patrol?
Patrol the "frontiers" in skin and mucous membranes
Of the two types of APCs, which is likely to be the most powerful?
Dendritic Cells
Cytotoxic T cells recognize normal MHC proteins on normal body cells and do what?
Leave them alone
When cytotoxic T cells sees an altered MHC protein, it does what?
It will become activated and mount an immune response
T cells must simultaneously recognize what two things?
1. Nonself (the antigen
2. Self (MHC protein on cell)
Besides being presented an antigen, what else does a T cell need to become activated?
It needs a go-ahead signal!
What are the two steps to T Cell activation?
1. Antigen binding
2. Co-stimulation of T Cell
What is Co-stimulation of T cell?
It is the go-ahead signal
Can co-stimulatory signals come from the dendritic cells when they present the Ag to the T cell?
What are cytokines?
What else can secrete cytokines?
Helper T cells!
Helper T cells can stimulate the dendritic cell to do what?
To send co-stimulatory signals to the cytotoxic T cell
Helper T cells also produce what other hormone like molecule?
Interleukin 2
What is Interleukin 2?
It is a cytokine that causes cytotoxic T cells to proliferate and differentiate
Cytotoxic T cells circulate where?
Through the lymph and blood
What are the 4 targets of Cytotoxic T Cells?
1. Virus-infected body cells
2. Body cells with intracellular bacteria or parasites
3. Cancer cells
4. Foreign Cells
Cytotoxic T Cells can activate what?
Macrophages to attack!
Cytotoxic T Cells deliver a "lethal hit" by releasing what two things?
Perforins and granzymes
What are perforins?
They create pores in the target cell's surface
What are Granzymes?
Type of proteases that enter the target cell and degrade its contents
Cytotoxic T Cells also call in the what? By doing what?
The Reserves!!! By releasing chemicals that prod macrophages into insatiable phagocytes and secreting bactericidal chemicals
What type of molecule are perforins?
T cells release perforin and Granzyme molecules through what process?
After injecting perforins and granzyme, what do T cells do?
Detach and begins search for another prey
What are the 4 functions of Helper T cells?
1. Help activate T and B cells
2. Induce T and B cell proliferation
3. Stimulate B cells to divide more rapidly
4. Activate macrophages and recruit other immune cells
Without helper T cells, what would happen?
No immune response!
HIV virus cripples the immune system by interfering with the activity of what?
Helper T Cells!!!
What is Kaposi's Sarcoma?
Cancer of the blood vessels