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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the most important site of digestion and absorption?
The Small Intestine!
What is the first 10 inches of the small intestine called?
What is the Duedenum?
It is the first 10 inches of the small intestine
What are the three parts of the small intestine?
Duedenum, Jejunum, and Ileum
What are the 7 parts of the digestive tract?
1. Mouth
2. Pharynx
3. Esophagus
4. Stomach
5. Small Intestine
6. Large Intestine
7. Anus
What do the Salivary glands do?
Secrete Saliva to lubricate food and begin chemical digestion
What does the Liver break down?
Alcohols and some drugs
What are the main functions of the Liver?
Store glycogen and make proteins
What is the digestive function of the Liver?
Synthesizes bile!
What is the Gallbladder?
It is a small organ under the liver that stores and secretes bile
What two hormones to regulate glucose homeostasis?
Insulin and Glucagon
Does insulin lower or raise glucose levels?
Does glucagon lower or raise glucose levels?
What are the 6 essential digestive activities?
1. Ingestion
2. Propulsion
3. Mechanical digestion
4. Chemical Digestion
5. Absorption
6. Defecation
What is Ingestion?
Taking in food by mouth
What two things make up Propulsion?
1. Swallowing
2. Peristalsis
What is Peristalsis?
It is the region of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
What kind of muscle makes up the Propulsion regions?
Smooth muscle!
What is Mechanical Digestion?
Breaking food into small pieces
TRUE OR FALSE: You break down chemical bonds during mechanical digestion.
What are the three parts of Mechanical Digestion? Where do they occur?
1. Chewing (mouth)
2. Churning (Stomach)
3. Segmentation (Small Intestine)
What is the purpose of Mechanical Digestion?
To increase surface area for enzymes to act on food molecules
Food that reaches the stomach is called what?
What is Chyme?
It is food that reaches the stomach
Peristalsis involves what kind of tract organs that alternately contract and relax?
Adjacent segments of Alimentary tract organs
Segmentation involves what kind of tract organs that alternately contract and relax?
Nonadjacent segments of Alimentary tract organs
In Segmentation, food moves in what direction?
Forward then backward then forward again.
What is Chemical Digestion?
Chemical bonds are broken by acid and enzymes
Digestive enzymes break down what kind of bonds?
Strong covalent bonds!
Macromolecules are chemically digested into what?
Most of chemical digestion occurs where?
Duedenum of the Small Intestine
What is Absorption?
Digestion products and water are absorbed from the lumen of digestive tract into the blood or lymph
Where does reabsorption occur?
For the first time, solutes are absorped from where into where?
From the digestive tract into the blood
Final water absorption occurs where?
Large intestine!
What is Defecation?
Elimination of wastes as feces
What are three types of super important macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids
What are the final digestion products of Carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides like glucose, fructose, and galactose
What are the final digestion products of proteins?
Amino Acids
What are the final digestion products of lipids?
Monoglycerides and free fatty acids
What are the digestive enzymes that break down carbohydrates?
Amylases, disaccharidases
What are the digestive enzymes that break down proteins?
What are the digestive enzymes that break down lipids?
What are the three important enzymes that break down Carbohydrates?
Salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, and the brush border enzymes
What enzymes make up the brush border enzymes (there are three)?
The Disaccharidases: Lactase, maltase and sucrase
If carbohydrates are simple sugars (monosaccharides), what happens for them to be digested?
Nothing! They're just absorbed.
If carbohydrates are larger than monosaccharides, what happens for them to be digested?
They require enzymes to chemically digest them
Glucose is stored in what form?
What molecule is the form in which plants store glucose?
CHO (Carbohydrate) digestion begins where with what enzyme?
In the mouth with salivary amylase
Salivary Amylase breaks down polysaccarides into smaller chains but what is there still very little of roaming freely?
CHO digestion stops where?
Stops in the stomach!
Why does CHO digestion stop in the stomach?
Because the stomach acid denatures the amylase
What is the lumen?
Hollow center of the small intestine
CHO digestion resumes where and with what enzyme?
In the Small Intestine with Pancreatic Amylase
Pancreatic Amylase is secreted from what into where?
Secreted from the Pancreas into the Duodenum
Final CHO digestion occurs where with what enzymes?
On the Brush Border with the brush border enzymes
What are the folds with large fingerlike projections called in the small intestine?
What are Villi?
They are large fingerlike projections in the folds of the lumen of small intestine
Each villus is covered with what?
Absorptive cells!
Each Villum has numerous tiny extensions called what?
When especially numerous, microvilli are called what?
Brush border
What are digestive enzymes attached to the microvilli called?
Brush Border Enzymes
Table Sugar, Sucrose, is digested by what?
Grain Sugar, Maltose, is digested by what?
Milk Sugar, Lactose, is digested by what?
If you are lactose intolerant, what is missing or defective? What does this cause?
Lactase Enzyme which causes it to stay in the lumen which causes water to follow and diarrhea or gas may occur
What are proteins?
Long chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Which enzymes break down peptide bonds in proteins?
Proteases are secreted into the lumen of the digestive tract in an active or inactive form?
Why are proteases secreted into the lumen in an inactive form?
Protect the tract from self-digestion
Cells lining the tract, especially the stomach, secrete what to further protect and lubricate?
Where does protein digestion begins where with what enzyme?
Stomach with HCl and the enzyme pepsin
Gastric Pits lead to what on the inner surface?
Gastric Glands
HCl activates what?
Activates pepsinogen which breaks down peptide bonds
Gastric glands secrete what?
HCl and pepsinogen (inactive protease)
What pH is pepsin happy to live in?
pH 2
Protein digestion continues where with what enzymes?
In the lumen with pancreatic proteases
What are the three pancreatic proteases?
1. Trypsin
2. Chymotrypsin
3. Carboxypeptidase
Pancreatic proteases are not active at what pH?
Acidic pH
After being in the lumen, protein digestion continues where with what enzymes?
On the Brush Border with brush border proteases
Where does protein digestion conclude?
Absorptive cells with intracellular proteases
What do the intracellular proteases digest?
Dipeptides and tripeptides into amino acids
Large polypeptides are digested where?
Small polypeptides and small peptides are digested where?
Brush border of small intestine
Amino acids (dipeptides and tripeptides) are digested where?
Within the absorptive cells of small intestine
Why do lipids require different strategy from proteins and carbs to be digested?
Because they're hydrophobic
Digestive enzymes are water soluble or not?
Water Soluble
What make up most dietary lipids?
Triglycerides like animal fats and plant oils
TRUE OR FALSE: Triglycerides are very energetic and very hydrophobic.
Almost all lipid digestion occurs where?
Lumen of the small intestine
What enzyme breaks down lipids?
Pancreatic lipase
Lipids must be what to be digested?
Pretreated by emulsification with bile salts
Are there brush border enzymes with lipid digestion?
Bile salts in the bile mix with what?
Mix with fat globules in the lumen
What is emulsification?
It is the process of which bile salts break down fat globules into fat droplets
What type of cells make up the small intestine?
Epithelial cells
Bile salts coat fat droplets so they don't do what?
Is emulsification a mechanical digestion process or a chemical digestion?
Mechanical Digestion!
Pancreatic lipase digests triglycerides into what?
Monoglycerides and free fatty acids
Free Fatty Acids and monoglycerides associate with bile salts to form what?
Micelles do what?
Micelles ferry Free Fatty Acids and monoglycerides to the brush border
What happens to fatty acids and monoglycerides leave micelles to do what?
To diffuse into absorptive cells
Once in the absorptive cells, fatty acids and monoglycerides recombine into what?
Once triglycerides in the absorptive cells, what do they do?
Become packaged with cholesterol and proteins to form chylomicrons
What are chylomicrons?
Triglycerides packaged with cholesterol and proteins
Chylomicrons enter what to be carried away from the intestine by the lymph?
Enter lacteals
What are lacteals?
They are lymphatic capillaries in the villi
Are lacteals more or less permeable than blood capillaries?
Once chylomicrons are extruded by exocytosis, what occurs?
They are transported to the systemic circulation via the lymph system