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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What do autonomic reflexes involve?
Smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
What are the two divisions of autonomic reflexes?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic division
What is dual innervation?
Dual innervation is where both divisions innervate the same organs but usually cause opposite effects
Which division is the flight or fight response?
Sympathetic Division
What are 6 reflexes in the sympathetic division?
1. Mobilization of body during exercise or emergency
2. Increases heart rate
3. dilate bronchioles
4. Shunt blood flow to skeletal muscles
5. Pupils dilate
6. Mouth goes dry
What division is the rest and digest response?
Parasympathetic division
Which division promotes "housekeeping" functions?
Parasympathetic division
What are the housekeeping functions? Who promotes them?
Digestion, elimination of wasets, heart slows, breathing slows, pupils constrict. parasympathetic division
In a sympathetic neuron chain, the preganglionic axon secretes what NT?
In a sympathetic neuron chain, the postganglionic axon secretes what NT?
In a sympathetic neuron chain, what is secreted by the adrenal medulla?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood stream
In a parasympathetic neuron chain, which NT is secreted from both the preganglionic axon and the postganglionic axon?
What is the effect of the NT acetylcholine in the somatic nervous system?
Always stimulatory. Always causes contraction
What are the effect of the NT acetylcholine and norepinephrine in the autonomic nervous system?
Stimulatory or inhibitory. Depends on the NT and receptors on the effector organs
What kind of effect is bright light causing pupillary constriction?
What kind of effect is dim light causing pupillary dilation?
Normal pupil size results from a balance between what two effects?
Parasympathetic and sympathetic
Which effects are protective?
Which effect can override the other?
Parasympathetic can override sympathetic
What kind of muscles control the pupillary action?
Smooth muscle
What is a direct response regarding pupils?
Direct response is stimulated pupil constricts
What is Consensual response?
Opposite (unstimulated) pupil constricts
What is good about consensual response?
Protects both eyes even if only one is stimulated
What is atropine? What does it cause?
Atropine is a drug that blocks acetylcholine receptors on sphincter pupillae muscles. Causes eyes to be unable to constrict
What is the iris?
Colored part of the eye
What is the pupil?
Pupil is the opening in the iris
What is the sphincter pupillae?
Sphincter pupillae is the muscle that constricts pupil size
What is the dilator pupillae?
The Dilator pupillae is the muscle that dilates the pupil size
Which type of neurons promote daily functions such as digestion?
Parasympathetic motor neurons
Which type of neurons have two neurons in series between the CNS and the effector?
Both parasympathetic and sympathetic motor neurons
Which neurons have preganglionic neurons that secrete acetylcholine?
Both parasympathetic motor neurons and sympathetic motor neurons