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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What kind of system is the lymphatic system?
Circulatory system!
The lymphatic system consists of what three parts?
1. Lymphatic vessels
2. Lymph
3. Lymphoid organs and tissues
What make up the lymphoid organs and tissues?
Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, etc.
What is Lymph?
Fluid filtered out of the blood
Lymphatic capillaries are found throughout the body except where?
Skin, CNS, bones and teeth
The lymphatic system supports what 3 functions?
1. Digestive system
2. Cardiovascular system
3. Immune system
Lacteals are located where?
Villi of the small intestine
What is the function of lacteals?
Absorp chylomicrons, transport lipids to the blood
Why do chylomicrons enter the lacteals?
Because they are more permeable than the blood capillaries
What are 2 ways the lymphatic system supports the cardiovascular system?
1. Provide a one-way system to drain fluid into the blood
2. Restore and maintain normal blood volume
What is one of the major ways the lymphatic system supports the cardiovascular system?
Restores and maintains normal blood volume
Fluid returning in lymphatic capillaries is called what?
What is the purpose of lymphatic capillaries intertwining with blood capillaries?
To pick up fluid that has leaked out of blood capillaries
To have blood flow through the capillaries, where is blood pressure higher? At the Arteriole or Venule?
Higher at the Arteriole!
Lymph forms at what rate?
3 liters per day
Fluid that has leaked into the IF cannot directly return to blood capillaries. Why?
Blood capillaries are under too high a pressure
Fluid in the IF pushes against lymphatic capillaries via flaplike minivalves to become what?
Lymph flows toward what?
The heart!
Lymph vessels include what three things?
1. Lymphatic capillaries
2. Lymphatic collecting vessels
3. Lymphatic trunks and ducts
Lymphatic Capillaries are very permeable and thus take up what?
Take up proteins, cell debris, pathogens and cancer cells
Is the flow of lymph a passive or active process?
Passive process
Lymph passes through what to be cleansed?
Lymph nodes!
After passing through the lymph nodes, where does lymph go?
Lymph passes through lymphatic trunks and ducts and returns to large veins close to the heart
The return of lymph is aided by what?
Smooth muscle contraction in lymphatic vessels and throbbing of arteries
Lymphatic ducts drain into what veins?
Right and Left Subclavian veins just above the heart
Wh doesn't lymph drain into the arteries?
Arterial blood pressure is too high
Lymphatic vessels and lymphoid organs and tissues provide the structural basis for what system?
Immune system!
What are Lymph Nodes?
They are the principal lymphoid organs of the body
What are the three important regions of lymph nodes?
Groin, Armpit, and Neck
What are the lymph nodes in the groin called?
Inguinal nodes
What are the lymph nodes called in the armpit?
Axillary nodes
What are the lymph nodes in the neck called?
Cervical nodes
Are there more afferent pathways in the lymphatic system or more efferent pathways?
Lymph nodes house what?
Macrophages (phagocytic cells) and lymphocytes
What do macrophages destroy?
Microorganisms and cell debris
Phagocytes eat what?
Old cells, cancer, bacteria and viruses
What may happen to lymph nodes during infection?
They may swell and become painful as they trap bacteria, etc.
If they trap cancer cells, what may happen to lymph nodes?
May become swollen but not painful
Can nodes be removed?
If a patient has breast cancer, what nodes might be removed? What might this cause?
The axillary cells might be removed which might cause extra swelling in that arm
What are Lymphocytes?
They are the main warriors of the immune system
What are the two main types of lymphocytes?
T cells and B cells
T cells and B cells protect against what?
What are antigens?
Anything the body perceives as foreign like bacteria, toxins, viruses, mismatched RBCs or cancer cells
What are two other lymphoid cells?
1. Macrophages that eat foreign cells and activate T cells
2. Dendritic cells which capture antigens and deliver them to lymph nodes
What is the spleen?
Spleen is the organ that cleanses the blood of aged cells and platelets and debris
What does the spleen store?
Stores breakdown products of RBCs (like iron) for later use
Where do lymphocytes proliferates?
The Spleen!
What are lymphoid organs?
Organs in various places in the body that also have lymphatic tissue to help defend the body
Tonsils are in what region?
Pharyngeal region
Tonsils form a ring of what?
Ring of lymphatic tissue at the back of the throat
What is the purpose of the Tonsils?
To trap and destroy bacteria entering in food or air
What are Peyer's Patches?
They are patches in the intestine and appendix that remove bacteria from ingested food
What is the Thymus Gland?
It is the site of development and maturation of T cells
Is the Thymus gland large or small in infants?
When is the Thymus gland the most active?
During childhood
When does the Thymus gland stop growing?
In adolescence then atrophies