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42 Cards in this Set

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What is the purpose of the endocrine system?

The purpose of the endocrine system is to be a communication system between cells/organs.
What does the endocrine system do?
It helps maintain homeostasis and influences metabolic activity with hormones.
Which two systems overlap?
Endocrine and Nervous systems
What does the word endocrine mean?
Endocrine means "to secrete within"
What do endocrine glands do?
They secrete hormones INTO the blood
What do exocrine glands do? Examples?
Exocrine glands secrete products into body cavities or onto body surface. Sweat, saliva
Secretion is what type of membrane transport?
Exocytosis vesicular active transport
How do hormones travel in the body?
Hormones travel in the blood to all body cells
What does the word hormone mean?
Hormone means "to excite"
What makes a target cell?
Target cells have specific protein receptors on plasma membrane that bind to hormones
What is hormone action?
Hormone action triggers a change in cell activity
What makes up hormones?
Most are amino acid based
What are the two classes of hormones?
Amino acid-based (peptide) hormones and steroids
Which type of hormones is most common?
Peptide hormones?
How readily do peptide hormones cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion? Why?
They do not cross readily because they are non-lipid soluble.
Where are hormone receptors located?
Hormone receptors are located on the target cell surface
Is peptide hormone action fast or slow? Why?
Peptide hormone action is fast because they turn on existing proteins
What do peptide hormones activate?
Usually 2nd messengers
How readily do steroid hormones cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion? Why?
They cross readily because they are lipid soluble.
Where are steroid receptors located?
Steroid receptors are located inside the cell
Is steroid hormone action slow or fast? Why?
Steroid hormone action is slow because they turn on synthesis of new proteins
What are the five steps of steroid hormones inside a cell?
1. Steroid diffuses through the PM and binds to a intracellular receptor
2. The receptor-hormone complex enters the nucleus
3. The receptor-hormone complex binds a hormone response element (a specific DNA sequence)
4. Binding initiates transcription of the gene to mRNA
5. the mRNA directs protein synthesis
What kind of feedback controls secretion of most hormones? What happens?
Negative feedback. Negative feedback decreases the stimulus and hormone secretion decreases to normal
Cortisol is a corticosteroid that helps the body during stress, what happens to glucose levels?
Gradual increase in blood glucose.
What is the pituitary gland?
The pituitary gland is a pea and stalk shaped gland that secretes at least 9 hormones
What does FSH stand for?
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
What does FSH do?
Stimulates gamete (sperm and egg) production
What does LH stand for?
Luteinizing Hormone
What does LH do?
Promotes production of gonadal hormones
In women, what does LH do?
Luteinizing Hormone promotes ovarian follicles to mature
In men, what does LH do?
LH promotes interstitial cells of the testes to make testosterone.
What are the two lobes of the pituitary gland?
The posterior and the anterior lobes
What are gonadotropins?
Gonadotropins regulate the function of the gonads
What secretes GnRH?
The hypothalamus
What is GnRH stand for?
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
What do the gonads secrete?
The steroid sex hormones
Are testosterone and estrogen water soluble or lipid soluble?
They are lipid soluble.
What is the function of the interstitial cells in the testes?
To secrete testosterone
What is the hypothalamus?
The hypothalamus is part of the forebrain and controls many functions .
What are some of the hypothalamus' functions besides hormone secretion?
Hunger/feeding, thirst, temperature, physical response to emotions
Why was the anterior pituitary gland known as the "master endocrine gland"?
Because many of the hormones it produces regulates the activity of other endocrine glands.
Why is the anterior pituitary gland no longer considered the "master" gland?
Because the hypothalamus was found to control the anterior pituitary gland.