Master Endocrine Gland Case Study

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1 Hypothalamus – a small region of the brain that is a major link between the nervous and endocrine system. The hypothalamus controls the autonomic nervous system and regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, fear, rage, and sexual behavior. The hypothalamus control feeling such as pain, stress, and emotional experiences. (1)
2 Pituitary gland – the “master endocrine gland” because it secretes many hormones that control other endocrine glands. It is a “pea-shaped structure that attaches to the hypothalamus by a stalk. The pituitary gland contains an anterior lobe called the anterior pituitary that function to secrete hormones that regulate bodily activities from growth to reproduction.
3. anterior pituitary gland – secrete hormones that
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posterior pituitary – it does not produce hormones, but store and release two hormones called oxytocin (OT) and the antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
5 Pineal gland – a small endocrine gland attached to the brain at the midline and is part of the epithalamiums. The gland contains masses of neuroglia and secretory cells. The pineal gland secretes melatonin, which is an amine hormone derived from serotonin. Melatonin is released more in the darkness than in sunlight. (1) Melatonin contribute to the setting of the body’s biological clock.
6 Thyroid gland – the thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland that is located just inferior to the larynx or voice box. It is made up of spherical sacs called thyroid follicles. The thyroid gland is “the only endocrine gland that stores secretory product in large quantities.” The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones called thyroxine or T4 or triiodothyronine or T3, which function to increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) (rate of oxygen consumption under standard or basal conditions).
7. parafollicular cells – cells of the thyroid gland that produce the hormone calcitonin that can decrease the level of calcium in the blood by inhibiting the action of osteoclasts; cells that break down bone extracellular
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The left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta.
12 systemic arteries – Blood from aorta is divided into smaller streams traveling into smaller arteries to all parts of the body.
13 pulmonary arteries – right side of heart is the pump for pulmonary circulation where it receives dark red, deoxygenated blood returning from systemic circulation. Blood is release from the right ventricle into pulmonary trunk that divide into pulmonary arteries that carry blood to the left and right lung.
14 coronary arteries – branch from the ascending aorta and supply oxygenated blood to the myocardium.
15 coronary veins – Blood passes through arteries of coronary circulation and flows into capillaries where it delivers oxygen and nutrient to the heart and collect carbon dioxide and waste. Blood then move into coronary veins.
16 coronary sinus - This is where most deoxygenated blood from myocardium drains into the coronary sinus.

3. Respiratory System: Observe the diagram showing the major organs and structures of the respiratory system. Using the textbook and Virtual Library resources, fill in the following

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