Digestive Processes In The Diet Therapy

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• Peristalsis – rhythmic muscular contractions of the digestive track that move its contents along the digestive track.
• Segmentation – contraction happening in the small intestine. It divide and mixes the chime (partially digested food and digestive juices)
• Enzymes – proteins that speed up chemical reactions without change to themselves.
• Esophageal sphincter – the opening between the esophagus and he stomach that relaxes and opens to allow the bolus to travel into stomach and then closes behind it. Prevents the reflux of gastric contents.
• Pyloric sphincter – a circular muscle that forms the opening between the duodenum and the stomach. It regulates the passage of food into the small intestine.
2.
Mouth
Digestive process starts in the
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As a result undigested lactose will pass into large intestine, where it is digested by bacteria. Byproduct of this process is gas, which can cause abdominal discomfort, pain, or diarrhea.
Diet Therapy:
• Determine the amount of tolerable lactose
• Consume lactose with meal
• Adjust the type of dairy product consumed ( cheese has less lactose, eat yogurts with live culture, eat lactose free or reduced products)
• Use commercial prepared enzymes

Constipation
Constipation is when bowel movement happens less than three times per week. It could be caused by stress, inactivity, or illness, but the most common cause is a diet low in fiber and fluid and high in fats.
Diet Therapy:
• Increase the amount of fiber and fluids in a diet
• Regular exercise

Diarrhea
When watery stool occur more than three times a day we talk about diarrhea. It could be caused by stress, intestinal damage, food intolerance (lactose, gluten), or bacteria contaminated
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Their colon develops small pouches that bulge outward. If these pouches (diverticulum) become infected, we talk about diverticulitis, painful condition characterized by abdominal pain.
Diet Therapy:
• Adequate fluid intake
• High fiber diet
• During diverticulitis avoid high fiber diet, caffeine, chocolate, and milk

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
This condition cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, or constipation, and cramps.
Diet Therapy:
• Avoid beans, cauliflower, chocolate, alcohol, milk, fat
• Avoid short chain carbohydrates (mono, di, and oligosaccharides (up to six monosaccharides))
• Avoid polyol – sugar free sweeteners
• Include relaxation and stress management
• Regular exercise
• Adequate sleep

6.
(a.) Small Intestine
(b.) Villi are finger like projection covering the inside surface of the small intestine. Microvilli are hair like projection on each villus. Together they increase the surface (absorption) area in the small intestine
7.
Vascular System
Heart is pumping blood and keeping it circulating through the body. Water soluble nutrients are absorbed directly into capillary and are carried to the liver before they are distribute through the body. Waste products are transported by blood to the kidneys for

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