The Excretory System: A Case Study

Briefly trace and discuss the flow of blood in the human kidney.
Blood passes into the kidney through the renal artery entering the glomerulus within the Bowman’s capsule. However, when traveling into the glomerulus it is split into fifty capillaries, which has thin walls. The solutes within the blood are filtered through the thin walls by the pressure gradient exiting between the fluid in the Bowman’s capsule and blood capillaries. The pressure gradient is regulated by the dilation or contraction of the arterioles. After traveling through the afferent arteriole the now filtered blood enters into the vasa recta. The renal vein is responsible for blood exiting the kidneys (Shodor, 2016).

Briefly identify the structure and trace the development
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The kidneys function in removing toxic components through glomerular filtration, passing it on to the bladder via the renal tubules and eventually to the ureter. The bladder is responsible for storing the urine after leaving the kidney. It is a hollow muscular organ found in the pelvis area held by ligaments. The bladder is lined with three layers of transitional epithelium allowing it to protect its self from the acidity. It is unique as it has the capability to expand and contract since it is lined with a thick layer of epithelial cells (Patient, …show more content…
View the photomicrograph slide Figure 40.7 from your Laboratory Manual and identify the microscopic structures indicated by a leader line, number, or bracket. In the threaded Discussion Area below, briefly describe the function of:
Figure 40.7 proximal convoluted tubule
The PCT functions include the reabsorption of: water, sodium, glucose, fraction of bicarbonate, phosphates, calcium, potassium and other ions. However, the secretion of ammonium and hydrogen occurs within the tubules (NCBI, 2016).

Figure 40.7 distal convoluted tubule
The DCT is important including: varies ways of assisting with homeostasis, potassium secretion, calcium/magnesium handling, and reabsorption. It also has the ability to adapt to hormonal changes and the contents of tubular lumen. DCT functions to reabsorption: chloride, water, and sodium (NCBI, 2016).

Figure 40.7 glomerular capillary space
A single layer of epithelium known as the Bowman’s capsule surrounds each glomerulus. However, the Bowman’s space is located on the sides of the capsule. This provides the needed oncotic pressure in filtering the blood (SIU Med,

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