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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Inversion Effect

worst crimes are the rarest but are covered the most in the media, we are most scared of crimes less likely to happen to us


Socially harmful acts

laws exist to protect society

Consensus perspective

crime is because of lack of morality

Conflict perspective

Power and economics is the reason for crime

Categories of Crime

violent, sexual, property, drug and other (traffic, weapons)

"The Normality of Crime" by Emile Durkheim

-Crime is not an illness because it is not accidental

-Crime exists in ALL places

-Crime is subjectively constructed and is part of a healthy community

"Pajama Party with Elvis"

-Elvis and young girls= would not be socially acceptable today

-cultural fears change over time

Classical School

Rejects spiritual explanations, offenders use reason (cost and benefits), want to reform

Positivist School

Scientific study of criminals, Lombroso, influenced by Darwinism, biological traits,

Modern Theories/ Mainstream criminology

Control theory, differential association theory, anomie-strain theory

Control theory (modern)

how crime occurs when controls weaken

Differential association theory (modern)

how crime occurs when individuals learn cultural definitions supportive of illegal conduct

Anomie-strain Theory (modern)

How crime occurs when people endure the strain of being thwarted in their efforts to achieve success

Labeling Theory (critical theory)

Main cause of stable involvement in crime is not society but the attempts made to reduce crime by stigmatizing offenders and putting them through criminal justice system

Feminist Theory (critical)

gendering of criminology, highlights individual defects of women- explains how gender roles shape men and women's illegal conduct

-crime linked to patriarchy, masculinity, male peer support, race, class, gender

Theories of white collar crime

Crimes of the powerful, high cost to society

Theory of the Conservative Era

Expanded imprisonment, prevent crime,

-Routine activity theory/ Environmental Criminology, perceptual deterrence theory

Routine Activity Theory/ Environmental Criminology (conservative)

crime involves opportunity to break law, focus on motivation, crime decreased by making environment less hospitable to crime= prevention

Perceptual Deterrence Theory (conservative)

See crime as a choice shaped by objective or perceived costs and benefits

How do we get information about crime?

-stats from arrests, imprisonments

-self reporting

-asking victims

FBI UCR (Uniform Crime Rates)

Strength: definitions are standardized and consistent

Weakness: practices in policing vary, many crimes are undetected/ unreported, race, no white collar crimes

Self Report Studies

Strength: more coverage, covers unreported crimes

Weakness: validity/ reliability, people can lie, answers up to interpretation, people might be ashamed/ scared

*shows all races commit crime*

Victimization surveys

Strength: more coverage, captures unreported crime

Weakness: faulty memories, victimless crimes not reported, people can lie/ get confused

Reasons for incarceration

Incapacitate, Rehabilitation, vengeance, deterrence

Factors that explain decreasing crime rate now

good econ in 90s, older baby boomers, more police, gun control/ conceal and carry, more capital punishment, decrease crack, legalization of abortion, increasing imprisonment

Levels of culpability

purposeful, knowingly, recklessly, negligently

National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) = modern

-more detailed, no hierarchy, gives info on situation of crime, takes a lot of manpower, high rate of black crime

"A crime by another name" by Reiman

business crimes should be taken into account, environmental crimes, carnival mirror: power of offending group, bias- media, individual vs. institution, white collar is complicated- culpability weighs more than harm

Spiritual perspective

pre-enlightenment, culture and social order of time allows for unreasonable resolution, conflict between good and evil, God's punishment

Classical School

Criminals and non criminals are the same- difference is morality, swift and severe punishments, emphasis on free will (pain vs. pleasure), equality

Positivist School

Scientfic, phsyical, psychological or social

Believe in perfectibility of society, evolutionary degenerates, racial overtones, neglects social factors- Lombroso

Biological positivism

Phsyiognomy: faces

Phrenology: head shape

Consitutionalism: body type

Mental deficiency theories

Psychological Positivism

Freudian (unconscious, ID, ego, superego), criminal personality, psychopathy, abnormal

Sociological Positivism

Chicago school theory: socioeconomy, cultural and structural make up causes crime

Social Disorganization Theory

-Shaw and McKay

-Povery, residential turnover (instability) and ethnic heterogeneity (diversity) cause disorganization

-crime in lower class

Differential Association (social learning theory)

Criminal behavior is learned by interactions with others, learn techniques and motivations, motivation learned from definitions of legal codes, criminal because of too many definitions favorable to law violation

Suicidal Mass kIller

schizophrenia, killer blames group of people, rare, wants attention/ fame, wants to be a martyr or symbolic

Chicago School of Criminology

1800s, increase in population/ immigrations, increase urban poor, no rewarding lives, reformation, urban slums bred crime, ecological system, concentric zone theory

Concentric Zone Theory

loops/ districs, high priced residential areas were in outer zones far away from inner city/ poor

Social Disorganization Theory

measures low socioeconomic status, structural factors increased social disorganization and disorganized areas with higher levels of crime

Differential Social Organization

social groups are arranged either in support or against criminal activity

Strain theory

crime is normal and necessary, how much you are able to achieve, greater strain, greater likelihood of crime

-explains white collar crime better than random murder

-focuses on individual

-disparity between means and goals


strain theory (+/+ cultural goals and structural means)


-strain theory


-(+/- cultural goals and structural means)


-strain theory

(-/+ cultural goals and structural means)


-strain theory

-drug addicts

- (-/- cultural goals and structural means)


-strain theory

(+/-, -/+ cultural goals and structural means)

Crime and the American Dream (Messner and Rosenfeld)

crime emerges from the very character ofAmerican society

-competitive culture breaks down cultural norms

Social Control Theory

Certain factors “control” us, deter us fromcommitting crimeSocialstandards are not rejected, they are neutralized

Containment theory

-type of control theory

-criminal motivation is pushes (biosocial forces, psychological pressures,environmental pressures) and pulls (Illegitimate opportunities, delinquent peers,subcultural factors)

-Containment (force that keeps people from committing crime)

Outer containment

-containment theory/ control

-factors within a group that reinforceconventional behaviors

inner containment

-containment theory/control

-Internal factors that insulate individuals frompushes and pulls

Drift Theory

· People drift in and out of crime, mostlyconforming but sometimes offending, people generally know right from wrong

-techniques of neutralization

Techniques of neutralization

-drift theory, explains/ justifies crime

o Denial of responsibility (didn’t mean it) o Denial of injury (didn’t hurt anyone)

o Denial of victims (they deserved it)

o Condemnation of the condemners (every one ispicking on me)

o Appeal to higher loyalties (I didn’t do it formyself)

Hirschi’s Social Bond Theory

-social bonding is negatively related to criminal propensity

-4 elements of social bond

4 elements of social bond

-Hirschi's social bond theory

o Attachment to others

o Involvement in conventional pursuits

o Commitment to conventional objectives (straintheory)

o Beliefin the moral worth of societal norms

Labeling Theory

Criminal/deviant is one to whom the label hassuccessfully been applied. It is ta declaration of public identity, hard to escape label

-Lermert's process of primary and secondary deviance

-focus on laws/ state

Lermert's process of primary and secondary deviance

1. Primary deviance

2. Social penalties

3. Further primary deviance

4. Stronger penalties, rejections

5. Further deviance, hostility directed towardpenalizers

6. Formal community stigmatizing of deviant7. Strengthening of deviant conduct

8. Ultimate acceptance of deviant role, socialstatus, adjustment

3 key tensions in policing/ criminal justice

1. rights vs safety

2. efficiency vs. legitimacy

3. authority vs. power

Purposes of imprisonment

1. Punishment

2. Incapacitation

3. Deterrence

4. Rehabilitation

Marxian and Conflict theory

punishment gets harsher when surplus labor(unemployment) increases

o disadvantages populations may appear morethreatening during these periodsprisonsare super-structural and promote capitalism

o institutional dynamics become harsher

The New Penology/ Managerialism

-corporate like

-focus on individuals (rehab and deterrence to focus on managing crime)

-institutions interests and decision makers more important than social groups

-new objectives and techniques for system

-lower recidivism, more money for prison

Solitary confinement

-administrative segregation

-23+ hours in cell

-tension= rights of inmates vs. safety of staff/ prisoners

Reasons to keep low gun control


-protection and safety

-bad people are going to have guns anyway then good people won't be able to protect themselves

-criminals are different (good vs. bad)

Reasons for gun control

- Constitution is interpreted differently,technology has advanced

-prevents accidents, safety gun contribute to lethal violence, increase death rates for assaults

Medical model of sex/ drug offending

treat the offender

moral model of sex/ drug offending

punish the offender

moral panic

involes a threatening issue that receives more public attention then it deserves

Pharmacological Determinism

· Drug use leads to problems

· Myth of instant addiction

· Ignores larger social, political and economicfactors that affect patterns of drug use and the relationship between drugs andother problems

3 ways drugs and crime are connected

o drugs make people commit crime due topsychological effects (ban drugs)

o people commit crime for drug money (ban drugs)

o crimes are the result of disputes within illegaldrug markets (legalize drugs)

Drug wars

-conflict theory

-laws, gov’t will be oriented towards maintaining adangerous or threatening population

-drugs direct cause of social problems

American Drug wars 3 areas of inquiry

1. instituations' interest (power, money)

2. Grassroots- public fears exploited

3. Elites- political and economic benefit