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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the field of criminology?
Scientific approach to study criminal behaviour and society's reaction to law violations and violators.

Scientific method to study: nature,extent, cause and control of criminal behaviour.
History of criminology
-mid eigteen century
classical theory: crime is a function of decision making to weigh costs and benefits
Crime and deviance
Criminologist devote themselves to measure,understand and control crime and deviance,

deviance: spectrum of behaviour that differ from norm
Three different views of crime/ concept of crime
consensus: crime is behviour that all element of society consider repungent
conflict: protect and advance on self interest
interactionist:those with social power impsoe views on soceity and define crim behaviour
What is criminal law?
set of rules that specify beahviour society is outlawed
Felony and misdemeanor
felony: seirious offence -year or more imprisonment()
misdeamenour: minor crim-fine or short imprisonment (
FACT: sex offender registration
does not deter offenders or rates of child molestation.
Megans law
criminological enterprise
subareas within criminology that define the field of study
Crime and crim: domestic violence is abnormal
wife beaters may have an abnormal brain structure, maybe hard wired to respond to violence
What is white collar crime?
illegal acts to capitalize persons status in workplace
Terrorist attacks
-mental illness is not a factor
-not psychopath
-no terrorist personality
-childhood and trauma usually reported but dont explain it.
subarea focuses on correction and sentencing of known criminal offenders. rehab, capital punishment or mandatory sentences.
penologists evaluate the criminal justice system
role of victim in criminal events:
-victim surveys
-calculate probability of victim risk
-services for crim victims
victimiologists try to understand why some people become victims
cesare beccaria:classical criminology
cesara beccaria
-he believed utilitarianism: achieve pleasure to avoid pain, crime occurs when pleasure out waighs pain.
-punishment must be :public, prompt and necessary
classical criminology
-people have free will
-people choose to commit for reasons of greed, or personal need
-crime can only be controlled by fear of crimnal sanctions
punishment that is severe, certain and swift deters criminal behaviour
positivist criminology
human behaviour is product of social, bio, psy or economic forces.
-use scientific method
-predictr and explain social phenomena
-emperical verification (e.g god and soul cant be measured)
-scicen must be value free
Positivist crim: biological determinism:cesare lombroso
-cesare lombroso is the 'father of criminology'
-he studied how criminals deferred from other people
-serious and violent offenders had inherited crim traits 'born criminals' suffered 'atavistic anomalies'>showed physical traits of savages
positiviest crim:biosocial theory
reflect assumed link between physical and social traits and influence on behaviour
sociological crim Quetelet
-age and sex influenced crime, also season, climate, population, poverty
-Quetelet was first to link alcohol and crime
Sociological crim: Durkheim, social positivism
durkheim: crime is normal because it's impossible to imagine society where crime is absent
-inevitable because everyone is different, and do beahviour to suit needs
-suggested crime can be healthful and useful as it paves society to change.
gave example of socrates
Durkheim: Anomie theory
means the absence or weakness of rules and social norms in any person or group; may lead an individual to lose the ability to distinguish b/t right and wrong.
Sociological crim: chicago school
sociologists who study relationship between environmental conditions and crime
-poverty influenced crime rates
-criminals were biologically or psychologically (not personal traits) imparied or morally inferior, crime can be improved by improving social and economic conditions.
socialization views of chicago school
crime occurs in youth when children develop inadequate self image, which renders them incapable to control misbheaviour
Conflict criminology: karl marx
every civilization is determined by mode of production> the way people develop and produce material goods.
-important relationship between owner and production (capitalist bourgeoisie) and labourers (proletariat)
conflict criminolgoy: critical criminology
crime is product of captialst system
conflict criminology: conlifct theory
human behaviour is shaped by interpersonal conflict and those who maintain social power will use it to further own ends
Developmental criminology
sociological, psychological, economic elements to complex developmental view of crime causation.
-deeper roots of child maladjustment, smaller chance of adult adjustment
-children that are antisocial early in life are most likely to continue into adulthood
-physical and mental factors played a role in behaviour
-low intelligence with mental illness and powerful physique were most likely to beomce offenders
-Glueck integrate bio,social,psych elements and suggest initiation and continuity of criminal career was devlopemtnal process of internal and external situations, conditions and circumstances.
developmental theory
criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics
contemporary criminology
-classical theory= is now rational choice theory, argues criminals are rational decision makers.
-trait theory, lobroso. no longer believe a single trait or characteristc explains crime. trait theory product of abnormal biological or psych traits.
-social structure theory:class position is primary cause of crime (chicago school)
-social process theory: criminality is fucntion of peoples interactions with various organizations, institutions and process in society. children learn to commit crime by interacting with those who they admire. some are offenders because life experiences have been sshattered social bonds to society.
beahviour that departs from normal, it becomes a crime when its socially harmful or dangerous. not all crimes are deviant, and not all deviant behavoiur is criminal.
FACT: drawing a child
even drawing a child that is imaginary is child porn
critical criminologists
focus on oppression of poor, women, minority, therby linking class conflict, sexism, racism to crime. Critical criminologists examine how those who hold political and economic power shape law to self interests.
an act deemed socially harmful or dangerous that is specifically defined, prohibited, and punished under criminal law.
having criminal penalties reduced rather than eliminated