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60 Cards in this Set

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control balance theory
a development theory that attributes deviant behavior to an imbalance between the amount of control and individual has and recieves
cultural deviance theory
branch of social structure theories that sees strain and disorganization together to create a unique lower-class culture
developmental theory
developmental factors including biological, social and psychological change affect criminal career over life course
general theory of crime
developmental theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts of biosocial, psychological, routine activities, and rational choice
human nature theory
personal traits such as genetic make-up, intelligence, and body build, may outweigh the importance of social variables
integrated theories
weaves social and individual variables into a complex explanatory chain
labeling theory
society creates deviance by designating certain people as deviant, which causes them to be stigmatized
life course theory
conditions and events can influence the way people behave, and can cause change in that behavior later in life
lifestyle theory
people become crime victims because their life-style increases their exposure
power-control theroy
gender differences in crime are a function of economic power and parental controls
routine activities theory
predatory crime is related to the interaction of suitable targets, motivated offenders, and capable guardians
self-control theory
the view that the cause of delinquent behavior is an impulsive personality
social conflict theory
crime is a function of class conflict and power relations
social control theory
people commit crime when the forces that bind them to society are weakened or broken
social disorganization theory
breakdown of institutions such as family, school, employment, and neighborhood cause crime
social learning theory
human behavior is modeled through observation and interaction either directly or indirectly
social reaction theory
people become criminals when specific members of society label them as such
White collar crime
business related offences
Victomology
study of victim culpability, services for victims, and probabilities of victimization
victim-precipitation theory
victim actually initiates the confrontation that leads to their injury or death
Choice theory
criminals choose to commit crime
social strata
the unequal distribution of wealth
moral entrepreneurs
people who create rules
reflected appraisal
a youth's self-evaluation based on his or her perceptions of how others evaluate them
socialization
the process of human development and enculturation
stigma
an enduring label that taints a person's identity and changes him or her in the eyes of others
reflective tole-taking
when one believes that others view them as antisocial or a troublemaker, and then they reflect those beliefs
crime discouragers
people whose behavior directly influences crime prevention
rebel
substituting an alternative set of goals and means for conventional ones
denial of victim
offenders neutralize wrongdoing by maintaining that the victim of crime "had it coming"
social development model
states that a number of community level risk factors make some people susceptible to developing antisocial behavior
family relation
according to Gluecks, the most important factor that impacts offending
defiance
term represented by activities such as vandalism, curfew violations, and unconventional sex
life-course persisters
small group of offenders who begin their career at an early age, and continue into adult hood
social capital
positive relations with individuals and institutions that are life sustaining
interpersonal coercion
coercion that is direct, involving the use or threat of force and intimidation
exploitaion
those who have excess control and involve others to commit crime have this power
authority conflict pathway
pathway to crime that begins at an early age, usually with stubborn behavior
critical feminists
those who view gender inequality as a function of female exploitation by fathers and husbands
overt pathway
pathway of crime where aggressive acts begin with aggression and lead to physical fighting and then to violence
control deficit
occurs when a person's desires or impulses are limited by other people's ability to regulate or punish there behavior
proletariat
people who do the actual work in a capitalist society
bourgeoisie
owners of the means of production
submission
passive obedience to the demands of others, such as submitting to physical or sexual abuse without response
impersonal coersion
coercion that involves pressures beyond individual control, such as economic and social preasure
adolescent-limited
offenders antisocial behavior peeks during adolescence and then disapears
interactional theory
holds that seriously delinquent juveniles form belief systems that are consistent with their deviant lifestyle
Structural Marxism
Law is for the long term interests of the capitalists, by keeping the system operating efficiently
Outsiders
refer to people labeled as deviants who accept the deviant labels
Radical Nonintervention
labeling perspective regarding the effect of processing juveniles through the justice system.
Marxist Feminism
sees women as dominated by men as a result of the disproportionate location of economic power among men.
Postmodernism
Applies understandings of social change inherent in postmodern philosophy to criminological theorizing and crime control. Calls for deconstruction of knowledge rather than creation of knowledge
Deconstructionism
Central to postmodernism, Tearing down existing bodies of knowledge
Moral Entrepreneurs
people whose high social position gives them the power to make and enforce the social rules that all members of society have to live by.
Master Status
There are central traits of a persons identity that binds them to other traits
Edwin Lemert - Deviance
Primary deviance: The act(s) in question
Secondary deviance: Occurs when person is caught and labeled; continued deviance
Karl Marx: Marxist Criminology
The dominant feature of all societies was the mode of production (of material life), determines the general character of the social, political and spiritual process of life
Moral panic
a public perception of behaviors or groups of persons that greatly exaggerate their potential for harm to the larger society.
Instrumental Marxism
Those in power intentionally create laws and social institutions that serve their own interests and keep others from becoming powerful
Critical Criminology
An intellectual movement. Those in power manipulated the law in their own interest.