Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Atavistic Anomalies

Lombroso believed in "born criminals", individuals who have an inherited set of physical traits.

Criminal Offender 1895

Lombroso argued that a small group of female criminals lacked typical female traits.

Biological Determinism

Lombroso's believe that criminogenic traits can be acquired through indirect heredity from a degenerate family whose members suffered from ills such as insanity, syphillis, and alcoholism, or through direct heredity- being related to a family of criminals.

"On Crimes and Punishment"

Beccaria called for fair and certain punishment to deter crime.

Patterns in Criminal Homicide 1957

Wolfgang analyzed nearly 600 murders in Philadelphia and concluded that many homicides among people of lower social status result from trivial conflicts and insults and that the victims initiate the conflict more than one fourth of the time.

Social Structure Theories

The view that disadvantaged economic class is a primary cause of crime.

Differential Opportunity

Cloward and Ohlin. Suggests that one's socio-economic environment serves to predetermine their likelihood of achieving financial success legitimate or illegitimate means. Lower class youths, whose legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals.

Collective Efficacy

Social control exerted by cohesive communities, based on mutual trust, including intervention in the supervision of children and maintenance of public order

Cultural Deviance Theory

Branch of social structure theory that sees strain and social disorganization resulting in a unique lower class culture that conflicts with conventional social norms.

General Strain Theory

According to Agnew, the view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to produce criminality.

Middle Class Measuring Rods

The standards by which teachers and other representatives of state authority evaluate lower class youths. Because they cannot live up to middle class standards, lower class youths are bound for failure, which gives rise to frustration and anger at conventional society.

Social Disorganization Theory

Branch of social structure theory that focuses on the breakdown of institutions such as family, social, and employment in inner city neighborhoods.

Social Structure Theory

The view that disadvantaged economic class position is the primary cause of crime

Theory of Anomie

A modified version of the concept of Anomie developed by Merton to fit social, economic, and cultural conditions found in modern U.S society. He found that two elements of culture interact to produce potentially anomic conditions; culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them.

Focal Concerns

According to Miller, the value orientations for lower class cultures; features include the needs for excitement, trouble, smartness, and personal autonomy.

Differential Association Theory

According to Sutherland, the principle that criminal acts are related to a person's exposure to and excess amount of antisocial attitudes and values.

Differential Reinforcement Theory

An attempt to explain crime as a type of behavior. First proposed by Akers in collaboration with Burgess I'm 1966, it is a version of the social learning view that employes differential association concepts as well as elements of psychological learning theory.

Negative Reinforcement

Using either negative stimuli or loss of reward to curtail unwanted behaviors.

Primary Defiance

Deviant acts that do not help redefine the self image and public image of the Offender.

Secondary Defiance

Accepting deviant labels as a personal identity. Acts become secondary when they form a basis for self concept, as when a drug experimenter becomes as addict.

Social Bond

Ties a person has to the institutions and processes of society. Elements of the social Bond include commitment, attachment, involvement and belief.

Social Control Theory

The view that people commit crime when the forces that bind them to society are weakened or broken.

Social Learning Theory

The view that human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interactions, either directly from observing those who are close and form intimate contact, or indirectly through the media. Interactions that are rewarded are copied, while those that are punished are avoided.

Social Process Theory

The view that criminality is a function of people's interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society.

Social Reaction Theory

The view that people become criminals when significant member of society label them as such and they accept those labels as a personal identity.

General Theory of Crime

A developmental Theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts from biosocial, psychological, routine activities, and rational choice Theories.

Latent Course Theory

Theoretical views that criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after, that remains stable and unchanging throughout a person's lifetime

Life Course Theories

Theoretical views studying changes in criminals offending patterns over a person's entire life.

Self Control Theory

The view that the cause of delinquent behavior is an impulsive personality. Kids who are impulsive may find their bond to society is weak.

Problem Behavior Syndrome

A cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking. Precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking and unemployment as well as crime.


An inclination to behave in a particular way.

Hate Crime

Acts of violence or intimidation designed to terrorize or frighten people considered undesirable because of their race, religion, ethnic origin, or sexual orientation.

Violentization Process

The process by which abused children are turned into aggressive adults. This process takes violent youths full circle from being victims of aggression to its initiators; they are now the same person they grew up despising, ready to begin the process with their own children.

Subculture Violence

Norms and cultures that, in contrast to societies dominate value system, legitimize and expect the use of violence to resolve social conflicts.

Mass Murder

The killing of a large number of people I'm a single incident by an Offender who typically does not seek concealment or escape.

Serial Killer

The killing of a large number of people over time by an Offender who seeks to escape detention.

Shield Laws

Laws designed to protect rape victims by prohibiting the defense attorney from inquiring about their previous sexual relationships.


A pattern of behavior directed at a specific person that includes repeated physical or visual proximity, unwanted communication, and/or threats sufficient to cause fear in a reasonable person.

Statutory Rape

Sexual relations between an underage individual and an adult, though not coerced, an underage partner is considered incapable of giving informed consent.

Expressive Violence

Violence that is designed not for profit or gain but to vent rage, anger or frustration.

Instrumental Violence

Violence used in an attempt to improve the financial or social position of the criminal.