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55 Cards in this Set

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How do developmental theories seek to explain crime?

These theories emphasize that individuals’ criminal propensity develops along different pathways.​


They explore the onset, acceleration, and deceleration of offending, through to desistance.​


Crime varies across the life course, with most criminal involvement occurring in adolescence.​


The theories are “integrative” (to varying degrees) in that they take into account social, psychological, and biological factors simultaneously.​


Age has been found to decrease negative emotionality and increase conscientiousness.​


Adolescents experience a “time lapse” between their emotional experiences and their rational judgment.

Super Trait Theory

Robert Agnew​


Main argument: The two underlying traits of low self-control and irritability are “super traits” that encompass many specific risk factors, such as impulsivity, sensation seeking, etc.​


Negative responses from others which further perpetuate the risk.​


Agnew recognizes the impact of biological as well as environmental factors.​


His trait of “irritability” is analogous to what most psychologists refer to as “negative emotionality.”​

Dual Taxonomy Theory

Terrie Moffitt​


Main argument: Moffitt draws the distinction between adolescent limited (AL) offenders and life-course persistent (LCP) offenders​

Age Graded Development Theory

-Sampson and Laub


-extension of Social Bond Theory and Self Control Theory (Gottfredson and Hirschi)


- onset, persistence, and desistance of criminal behavior over time.


-why some antisocial children do not become criminals


-


bonds vary throughout the life course (i.e., are age-graded). ​


As a child, an individual is bonded to his/her parent(s) who exert social control directly (i.e., monitoring) and indirectly (i.e., attachment). ​


As an adolescent, an individual is bonded to school and peers. ​


Finally, in adulthood, an individual is bonded to their spouse and their job


acquiring a prosocial association later in life, such as entering a positive marriage or beginning a new prosocial employment, can increase informal and direct social control, alter the individual’s routine activities and change the individual’s perception of self-worth, which in turn decreases the likelihood of reoffending. ​


In other words, a person may desist from criminal activity once he/she had formed social bonds in adulthood.


sometimes people just decide to no longer engage in criminal behavior (i.e., human agency).

Different Pathways to Boy Delinquency

Overt- pathway to a delinquent career that begins with minor aggression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually escalates to violent delinquency


Covert- pathway to a delinquent career that begins with minor underhanded behavior, leads to property damage, and eventually escalates to more serious forms of theft and fraud

Adolescent-Limited Offenders

-12-18


-14-16


-Maturity Gap


-Social Mimickery


They start offending at around 14-15 years old​


Their offenses are usually minor forms of delinquency​


They continue to commit offenses for 2-3 years then they desist​

Life-course Persistent Offenders

Relatively small proportion of the population, somewhere between 4-9% of all males​


Offenders who follow this trajectory engage in a variety of antisocial behaviors throughout the life course​


Their antisocial tendencies appear early in childhood and continue to be manifested through adolescence and into adulthood​


As young children, these individuals stand out form other children as more aggressive and difficult to manage​


They come to the attention of the police when they are still preteens, and during their teenage years they commit more serious offenses than other teenagers​


As adults, these individuals continue to lead very troubled lives

Risk Factors for Delinquency

-male


-ADHD


-Aggresion


-Bad parenting


-Substance abuse


-antisocial peers


-neglect


-antisocial behavior


-low IQ

Protective Factors for Delinquency

-female


-high IQ


-intolerant attitude toward deviance


-prosocial activity


-supportive parents


-parental monitoring

Aggravated vs Simple Assault

Aggravated includes weapon

Burglary

The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft

Larceny

The unlawul taking, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another.

Robbery

The taking or attempted taking of anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or putting the victim in fear.

Highest risk of being rape victim

young, poor, unmarried, nonwhite, female.

Highest risk of being a murder victim

young, nonwhite, male.

When and where do most robberies occur

night, highway or street

Most common relationship between victims and offenders

intrasexual and instraracial

Mass Muder

killing of several people at one location within minutes or hours.

Spree Murder

The killing of several people at different locations over several days.

Serial Murder

The killing of 3 or more victims over an extended period of time with a cooling off period.

How do feminists perceive rape?

-about power, not sex


-any man is a potential rapist


-learned behavior

Four Typologies of a Serial Killer

-Hedonistic


-Mission Oriented


-Power/Control


-Visionary

Hedonistic Serial Killer

The majority of serial killers; they kill for the thrill and joy of it, engaging in cruel and perverted sexual activity.

Mission-Oriented Serial Killer

Feel it is their mission in life to kill people such as prostitutes or homosexuals.​

Power/Control Serial Killer

Gain primary satisfaction from exercising complete power of his victims rather than from “bloodlust,” although sexual activity is almost always involved. ​

Visionary Serial Killer

Out of touch with reality; may be psychotic or schizophrenic, and commit murder due to visions or “voices in their head.”

Under what circumstances do women tend to kill?

Self-defense

Most Common Property Crime in US

Larceny-Theft

Fence

Person who regularly buys stolen property for resale and who often has a legitimate business to cover his or her activities.

Jockeys

Professional auto thieves who steal particularly high-value vehicles “to order” for specific customers.​

Hackers

Someone who illicitly accesses someone else’s computer system.​

Uttering

the passing of that document to another with knowledge of its falsity with intent to defraud.

Identity Theft

The use of someone else’s personal information without their permission to fraudulently obtain goods and services.​

Phishing

Casting thousands of fraudulent emails asking for personal information, and waiting for someone to bite.

Piracy

Illegally copying and distributing software for free or for sale.​

Denial of Service Attack

Occurs when criminals “kidnap” a business website or threatens to kidnap it so that business cannot be conducted. ​



DoS attacks are accomplished by overloading the victim’s computer system by flooding it with millions of bogus messages and useless data.​

Forgery

The creation or alteration of documents to give them the appearance of legality and validity with the intention of gaining fraudulent benefit from them.

Embezzlement

The misappropriation or misapplication of money entrusted to the embezzler’s care, custody, or control.

Fraud

Theft by trick; i.e., obtaining the money or property of another through deceptive practices such as false advertising and impersonation.

Salami Technique

Embezzlers open accounts in their own name, and slice off a few cents from a large number of accounts.​

What motivates a person to commit arson?

Financial Gain​


Revenge​


Intimidation​


Expressive Motivations

Public Order Crimes

These are the “moving target” type—legal in some places and at some times, and illegal at other times and in other places.​


mala pohibita

Hallucinogenics

Hallucinogenic/mind-altering drugs.​


Examples: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and Peyote​

Narcotics

Reduce the sense of pain, tension, and anxiety, and produce a drowsy sense of euphoria.


Example: Heroin

Stimulants

Keep the body in an extended state of arousal.​


Examples: Cocaine and Methamphamine​

Relationship between drug use and crime

-The data clearly indicate that illicit drug abuse is associated with criminal behavior, but the causal relationship is unclear.


-A large body of research indicates that drug abuse does not appear to initiate a criminal career, although it does increase the extent and seriousness of one.

Pharmacomological Violence

Induced by the pharmacological properties of the drug itself.​

Economic-compulsive Violencce

Associated with efforts to obtain money to finance the high cost of illicit drugs.

Systemic Violence

Associated with the business of drug manufacturing and transportation. ​

Harrison Act

-1914 congressional act that criminalized the sale and use of narcotics.


-changed the way we saw drugs


-decreased drug addiction


-Spawned Criminal Black Market

Type 1 Alcoholism

“Characterized by mild abuse, minimal criminality, and passive-dependent personality variables.” (high functioning alcoholic-environmental influences more)

Type 2 Acoholism

"Characterized by early onset, violence, and criminality, and is largely limited to males.” (imposes on every day life)

5 Categories of Drugs

Schedule I: High abuse liability and no medical use in the U.S.​ (heroin)


Schedule II: High abuse liability, but some approved medical uses.​ (Oxycontin)


Schedule III and IV: Moderate to moderately high abuse liability, and are legally available with prescription.​ (Xanex)


Schedule V: Can be purchased without a prescription.​ (Tylenol)​

World's Oldest Profession

Prostitution

Drug Use Peaks at age

18-20