Photocatalyst Analysis Of Tio2
of nitrogen-doped TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles , but nitrogen doped TiO2/WO3 film with high transmittance has not been reported for the photocatalytic degradation of organic molecules. Photocatalyst thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction patterns, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy to understand the relationships between material properties and photocatalytic activities.
2.1 Sol–gel synthesis
The coating solution for TiO2/WO3 composite films (TW) was prepared with ethanol (anhydrous, 99.5%, Sigma-Aldrich®), n-butanol (anhydrous, 99.8%, Sigma-Aldrich®), deionized water, titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP, 97%, Sigma-Aldrich®), and tungsten hexaisopropoxide (WHIP, 95%, Alfa Aesar) in the molar ratio of 19:1:1:1:0.025 as reported elsewhere . Hydrochloric acid (HCl, 37%, Sigma-Aldrich®) and nitric acid (HNO3, 70%, Sigma Aldrich®) were added to the solution to inhibit the precipitation of the solution by controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Based on the TTIP content, HCl was added in the molar ratio of 0.09 (TWCl), and HNO3 was in the molar ratio of 0.09 (TWN1) and 0.15 (TWN2), respectively. These solutions were aged for 24 h before spin coating treatment to improve film quality. The SiO2 solution was also prepared by mixing ethanol, deionized water, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, 99%,…