Answer: Question 1 (a)
Energy Energy Energy
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(i) Insulator (ii) Semiconductor (iii) Conductor
Diagram 1: The energy band
The differences between insulator, semiconductor and conductor.
Insulator Semiconductor Conductor
It has a large band gap. It has a smaller band gap. It has no band gap.
It has a higher resistivity. It has a moderate resistivity. It has a lower resistivity.
No movement of electron occurs, so the conduction band remains empty. It has enough energy to displace a few of…
Semiconductor devices have transformed the way that we live by making tasks easier and more efficient than before. By utilizing the opinions of different professionals in the field about their affect on society, I want to investigate the different aspects of semiconductor devices. The question of will the accumulation of both the positive and negative outputs of the semiconductor industry lead to the need of advancing technology that is independent of the semiconductor.
This is important to me…
substrate. For example, when using two semiconductors with similar lattice constants, such as InAs and GaAs, a quantum well can be fabricated in roughly three stages. In the first stage, the Gallium and Arsenic chambers are opened for a calculated duration. The Ga and As particles…
The next month of the upcoming International Technology Roadmap for semiconductors is no longer aimed at Moore 's Law, according to an article in the <>, the world 's best-known academic journal. 50 years of the myth of the chip industry has finally been broken. 50 years ago, Gordon Moore predicted the development of the chip industry: When the price is constant, the performance of silicon chips every 18-24 months will be doubled. In fact, all this is unavoidable, since 1990, the…
Optical constants (complex refractive index n, complex dielectric function
ϵ, and reflection and absorption coefficients R and α) of materials are of great importance for optical metrology in the semiconductor industry.1,2 A high-performance complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor process flow with 11 layers of metal requires about 75 photolayers and may contain up to 100 thickness measurements, most of them performed using spectroscopic ellipsometry.3 This technique has…
Fig.7, shows that, the insulator behavior of the PVA for pure PVA. But, with increasing the time of reaction there is an improvement in the electrical conductivity of the PVA-Ag nanocomposite films.
Fig.7 shows that, the (I–V) characteristic of the samples, and the inset of Fig. 7 shows the relation between the conductivity and time of reaction. Then, the dc conductivity was calculated at the (voltage = 10 V) using the relation.
Where (d) is the sample thickness, (A) is the area of…
Quantum dots (Q-Dots) is very small semiconductor particles that means it can be either conductors or resist electricity depending on the temperature and purity of the semiconductor. Q-dots range in size from 2-10 nm, so because of their small size, quantum mechanics governs the physics of the particles. The synthesis Q-Dots were first studied in 1982 by Efros and Ekimov, and then many developments have reported the synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticles.1 Q-Dots have unique…
In the organic disordered materials, the charge transport is occurred by variable range hopping (VRH) of charge carriers between strongly localized states [22-25, 30, 58-61]. The VRH model proposed by Vissenberg and Matters model that considers the hopping percolation of thermally activated carriers between localized states is the most model used for describing charge transport in the disordered organic semiconductors and modeling the electrical characteristics OTFTs [27, 58]. Indeed, the…
obtained for flicker noise in semiconductors and metal films. According to
this model, the PSD of flicker noise is given by,
S(f) = γHV
Where Nc = ncΩ is the number of free charge carriers in the specimen,nc is the
charge carrier density and Ω is the volume of specimen.γH is the Hooges constant,
a parameter which characterizes the noise levels of a particular system. The initial
value of gamma is assumed as 2 ∗ 10−3
. Experimental evidence supporting this
model is the noise signals in…
Since the water splitting reaction using semiconductor electrode reported by Fujishima et al. in 1972 , there is increasing interest in the development of metal oxide photocatalysts for environmentally friendly applications such as air purification , hydrogen production via water splitting  and the removal of organic molecules from water . Recently, photocatalyst thin film has aroused growing interests instead of a powder type of photocatalyst. Photocatalyst film can be deposited…