Scipio Africanus

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    (Appian, S.22). Around Myonessus, Polyxenidas’ fleet again engaged the Roman fleet, this time with 89 ships while the Roman and Rhodian fleets had 80 ships (Livius, 37.30). Despite an attempted flanking maneuver by Polyxenidas the Romans pulled through as they were “far superior in the stoutness of their ships and the bravery of their men” according to Livius. The battle resulted in the dissolution of Seleucid presence on the sea (Livius, 37.31). The Roman path for an invasion of Anatolia was cleared while Antiochus, finally taking action, weakened himself against Pergamon (Taylor 130-131). Prior to Cissus and Myonessus Lucius Cornelius Scipio had been elected Consul and had assumed command of the Roman army in Greece, aided by his famed brother Scipio Africanus and an army of 22,000. Scipio Africanus, also known as Publius Cornelius Scipio, was highly vaunted from the Second Punic War for his key position in the eventual Roman victory against Hannibal Barca (Polybius 160; Taylor 128). The Romans despite being possibly disadvantaged in numbers still had the advantage of superior morale and discipline compared to Antiochus’ troops whom would be recently recruited. An opportunity arose for invasion once Antiochus took fright from his defeat at Myonessus and despite wanting to defend the Hellespont, retreated to the interior (Appian, S.29). He then sent out a diplomat to request peace from the Romans, but they would have nothing of it (Appian, S.29). It was the summer of 190 B…

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    Tiberius and Gaius (Caius) Gracchus were the sons of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and Cornelia Africana—the daughter of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the famed hero of the Second Punic War. These brothers were reformers whose reforms would greatly alter Rome. Who are they and what exactly did they bring about? I will start with the eldest of these brothers—Tiberius Gracchus. He was born around 164 B.C. in Rome. He was the eldest boy of the surviving three children (his mother actually…

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    Scipio Africanus The second Punic War was ended a year after the battle of zama-- that in which Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal Barca, which is to be believed to be the reason that Carthage surrendered. He also managed to make Rome out to be a savior of the people when he conquered previously Carthage occupied towns. Scipio Africanus directly impacted Rome through his military career and his work in the senate. Scipio Africanus started his military career before the age of eighteen, when…

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    the sight of his soldiers (67) [My Emphasis]. Machiavelli writes early and often about an existing union between cruelty and conventional virtues, and, as shown above, he does not parse words. Not only does he describe great leaders that have used virtues and cruelty together, but he argues that they must. Machiavelli contends that, “without [cruelty], [Hannibal’s] other virtues would not have sufficed to bring about this effect” (67). Indeed, there is no contention from Machiavelli that…

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    The play “Julius Caesar” explained two men named Brutus and Antony who both presented speeches in front of their town with different meanings about the assassination of Caesar. Antony had to ask Brutus for permission to speak at Caesar’s funeral. His despairing emotion and speech drawed the crowds special attention. Antony speech does not show any praise of caesar but does show sympathy and memorable memories that caesar did for his town. This whole situation sums a complete catastrophe. If…

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    Australopithecus africanus In the greatest debate of anthropology lies the all consuming desire to know where we as humans come from. Who were our ancestors and what made them so different from us? It is debated if Australopithecus africanus or Australopithecus afarensis is the direct ancestor to the genus homo. Through critical evaluation of the features of the skeleton, diet and dentition, and use of bipedality, it is evident that A. africanus is a direct ancestor to modern humans while…

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    Biogeography

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    8 25.36 20 8 9.7 10.8 438.8 Australopithecus aethiopicus 4.2 21.2 19.8 40 9 13.8 13.8 897.43 Australopithecus afarensis 3.5 14.6 23.97 23 9.1 11.11 16.8 578 Australopithecus africanus 4.3 15.9 27 27 10 8.4 12 527.78 Australopithecus boisei 3.5 18.9 28.5 45 9.8 12.5 15.5 994.185 Homo erectus 7 19.6 35.71 27 11.2 13 15.1 1151.16 Homo habilis 4 11.9 33.6 40 9.5 8 12.8 972.8 Homo heidelbergensis 4.5 17.2 26.1 35 11.2 12.1 15.3 1185 Homo neanderthalensis 7 19.7 35.5 43 11.8 12 16.7 1163.2 Homo…

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    Ancient Rome has a rich history filled with art, architecture, religion, technological advances, and intellectual discoveries. To stay in power, Rome had to ward off those challenging their superiority. One of the most famous disputes was between Rome and Carthage which prompted The Punic Wars. The first war started in 264 BC and the third and final war ended in 146 BC. During the Second Punic War, a man named Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus led the Roman troops after his Patrician father…

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    between 218 - 201 B.C. In this war, where Hannibal, the great Carthage’s general led an army, including war elephants. They, marched over the Alps, Brenner Pass, into Italy” (Romanempire, nd.). Hannibal’s entered into southern Italy and conquered one after another states in Rome. His invasion seemed to be undefeatable. Finally, he defeated in the battle of Cannae in 216 BC and Hannibal could not take revenge of the first Punic War. Rome established their sole control in the Mediterranean…

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    (notes 9/29) Cato the elder attacked his reputation mercilessly. Paulus made an alliance with the son of Scipio Africanus. (notes) Scipio Africanus the younger adopted the son of Paulus who was named Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus. (notes) This adoption was condemned by Cato the elder who saw it as a symbol of everything that was wrong with the Roman republic but could do nothing about it. The Third Punic War lasted from 149-146. At first the Romans did poorly and under pressure from the…

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