This literature review is an examination is taking place to examine the question of: what are the effects of technology on achievement for Pre-Algebra students in middle school? School districts across the world have been piloting the use of technology in the classroom to increase student achievement for many years. Stanic and Kilpatrick (2004) state “for mathematics curriculum reform, two historical moments stand out- the first at the turn of the century when a curriculum of unified and applied mathematics was the focus, the other coming during the 1950s and 1960s when modern mathematics was the core of reform efforts” (p. 12). The current root of reform involves technology and the way it can assist, enhance and manage instruction will…
only 3 inches long! How can she walk?” “Her head is way too big for her neck. She looks freaky.” These and many other comments could be heard as students put the finishing touches on their life-sized Barbie. As part of a Project-Based Social Justice Mathematics (PB-SJM) pedagogy, students investigated body image as portrayed by childhood toys by scaling Barbie dolls to their height (Mukhopadhyay, 2014). Students used the concept of ratios, scale factors, measurement, and multiplication of…
The reforms in mathematics education require teachers to teach in ways that many of them did not experience when learning mathematics in school or learning how to teach mathematics during their teacher preparation programs. The reform methods for teaching mathematics emphasize teaching mathematics for understanding rather than having students memorize rules or just use given procedures to solve tasks. Additionally, these instructional methods stress the use of open-ended tasks and real life…
learning mathematics is the development of one’s mathematical confidence (Ernest 22). This includes being confident in one’s personal knowledge in mathematics, in applying previously learned mathematical knowledge in various situations and contexts, and acquisition of additional knowledge and skills when needed. Mathematical confidence translates to success in dealing with math problems and mathematics in general, thereby decreasing one’s negative attitudes towards mathematics and increasing the…
According to U.S. Department of Education, eighty-one percent of Asian-Americans and seventy-one percent of Caucasian students do not attend high schools that offer a complete education in mathematics (US Department of Education). Studies show that students are not pursuing the STEM education because they are not introduced to applied math and science programs at an early stage in life. When a STEM program is introduced in elementary school, children gain interest in STEM education at a faster…
(p. 565-566) “Teaching and learning mathematics are complex tasks. The effect on student learning of changing a single teaching practice may be difficult to discern because of simultaneous effects of both the other teaching activities that surround it and the context in which the teaching takes place” (Grouws & Cebulla, 2000, p.8). The evidence suggests that teachers lack content knowledge that is essential when teaching…
Previously, the common belief relating to knowledge was that it is a defined justified true belief. However in the era of exponential discoveries, knowledge is perceived as something that can be reviewed and revisioned over time. The vast discoveries of our yesterdays, todays, and tomorrows have led humanity to define knowledge,and all we gain from it, as an objective fact, that can be supported or denied by progression. This progression may be, but not limited to: evidence, discoveries,…
WHAT IS COMMON CORE? The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) was created by a group of governors and implemented in 2010 to reform the United States education system (Mark Sulzer, 2014). The CCSS was created to develop standards for what students, K-12, need to know in each grade to be ready for college and a future career. “These standards communicate what is expected at each grade level, placing students, parents, teachers and school administrators on the same page” (Susan Neuman, 2013). The…
Mathematician Lament Paul Lockhart wrote a paper criticizing the current model for mathematic education and how it is inevitably failing to actually teach students math. He states that math should actually be considered a part of the arts (Paul Lockhart pg.3), the reason that students not only lack a sense of interest but an inability to properly learn math is because it isn 't treated as an art. The current practice of giving students overly complicated processes to learn math when in…
scientists from 17th-20th centuries and their outcomes till 20th century. This book is divided into five chapters. The introduction of each chapter begins with some affected incident in the main character's life which helps the reader to follow the next part. After the introduction, there are three parts, which author labeled as Veni, Vidi, and Vici. These are Latin words mean “I came, I saw, I conquered”. In Veni, author explain how the main character the scientist comes to his enigmatic…