r 1,i and r 2,i are random values uniformly distributed over [0, 1]. This description of PSO is applicable to real-valued search spaces. However feature selection, along with many other problems, occur in a discrete search space and require a modified algorithm. Binary Particle…
Probability Warning, quit reading now if you don’t want to learn about how important probability and different parts of it are. Still reading? By the end of this paper you will be able to identify what probability is and what the different parts are, how they can be applied in the real world, and why it is important in a career. Independent Events what are they? When two events are independent of each other hints the name, this means is that one event has no effect on the other event. An example…
A weakness in this experimental design is the manual dilution of the Aquasol concentrations. This is because, if a random error were to occur, and the diluted Aquasol concentration does not result in the desired concentration, the validity, reliability, and precision of the results is majorly decreased. Whereas if the Aquasol concentrations were already previously diluted in a lab by professionals, or were bought in the correct concentrations, the reliability, validity, and precision of the…
contained scatter, and consisted of an outlier in the sample in which the ratio of NaCl: deionised water was 10:30mL. The outlier and scatter may have been due to random errors, which caused the results to be unreliable. Due to this, the raw data does not support the hypothesis. Thus, a line of best fit was drawn in order to reduce the effect of random errors, and statistically remove the outliers, to give a better representation of what the results should have been. This line of best fit…
1 Abstract — Information sent and received in wireless communication systems can suffer from data losses due to multipath propagation, further leading to intersymbol interference. These conditions compromise the integrity of the information transmitted. This paper explores the Viterbi algorithm used to combat error bounds in convolutional codes, and develops a MATLAB-based alternative model of the algorithm for continuous time applications that is shown to significantly diminish the effects of…
counter-clockwise rotation. In sharp contrast, the angular displacement of D3 dimer totally distributes at the positive side (third column of Fig. 4B), representing a unidirectional counter-clockwise rotation with random step length, where the photoinduced impulsive torques are unidirectional but random in…
outcomes were all Heads. Under the gambler’s fallacy, the person would think that the next outcome is most likely to be Tails and would then bet for Tails. The gambler’s fallacy is the false belief in “negative autocorrelation of a non-autocorrelated random sequence of outcomes” (Sundali & Croson, 2006). In simpler words, it is the tendency to perceive an outcome as less likely to occur if it occurred more frequently than normal previously. The most famous case of gambler’s fallacy occurred on…
1997). However, it is worth noting that the application of probability or assigning of probability to the events in the effort to gratifying the axioms of probability follows some rules or basics (Grinstead et al, 1997). One of the basics is the random variable that refers to the quantity with uncertain expected future values. For instance, it is of uncertainty to determine the price of the products in the near future given the changing dynamic…
Relationship between the classroom learning environment and student goal orientation. There are many patterns that links classroom structure and the differences in the goals of a student. Performance and learning goals is one of the set models. There are students who set performances goals and are focus on striving to complete those goals. Learning goals are set to increase the common core of what they should know. Evaluating the Significance of the Problem The checklist for evaluating the…
THE CONCEPTS OF NEGATIVE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN REAL LIFE. BY OWUSU BRIGHT. INTRODUCTION In centuries, human activities where outcomes are described either as success or failure, has been a concern in the history of probability and statistics. In the act of tossing a coin, throwing a die to obtain a 6, either a machine work or fails, a student passing an exam or not and so on are events whose end results are either a yes or no, good or bad, present or absent, success or…