and also Movie S3 and S4), typical anomalous rotation dynamics begin to emerge (Fig. 4B and C). The diameters of the two NPs for D2 and D3 dimers are 60 and 80 nm (with ratio 1:1.3), and 60 and 90 nm (with ratio 1:1.5), respectively, as shown by the inset images in Fig. 4C. It is interesting to find that the angular displacement distribution of D2 dimer strongly biases to the negative side (second column of Fig. 4B), indicating a much higher probability of clockwise rotation than that of counter-clockwise rotation. In sharp contrast, the angular displacement of D3 dimer totally distributes at the positive side (third column of Fig. 4B), representing a unidirectional counter-clockwise rotation with random step length, where the photoinduced impulsive torques are unidirectional but random in…
For starters, the walk in hours to see the academic advisor are so scarce especially when considering a student’s classes that they must attend. Another problem that these students are faced with is their own work schedules they must accommodate for as well. Between classes, work and other life activities, it is almost impossible to fit in the academic advisor. Not to mention the wait that goes along with it. This is a problem that needs to be solved in order to properly meet the needs of the…
The lottery is played all around the world. More than two-thirds of the citizens of the state. Anny three digit number can be placed from 000 to 999. After than the randomly draw a number. A number is drawn at random and announced by the state. The winner gets a prize. The probability that the correct 3 digits in the right order is selected is at an odds of 1 in 1,000. So if If a ticket costs two dollars and the winner must pick a sequence of five digits then if There are 10^5=100,000 different…
also, it provides alternative options for stakeholders to compare. If my project team have to deal with a project which puts the cost at the top priority of the triple constrains, I would definitely use the EMV analysis to give my sponsors and other stakeholders a clear and valid risk analysis report. Finally, the third type of quantitative analysis and modeling techniques is the modeling and simulation, which means that one can translate the specified detailed uncertainties into future impact…
Li (2000) introduced copula function approach in the aspect of evaluating credit derivatives, the copula function has gradually become the main approach in pricing CDO (Burtschell & George, 2005). In Li (2000) paper, a new random variable named ‘time-until-default’ was created to demonstrate survival time of each defaultable entity. And the copula function approach is based on this random variable to evaluate the default probability of financial instruments. Specifically, copula function specify…
next outcome is most likely to be Tails and would then bet for Tails. The gambler’s fallacy is the false belief in “negative autocorrelation of a non-autocorrelated random sequence of outcomes” (Sundali & Croson, 2006). In simpler words, it is the tendency to perceive an outcome as less likely to occur if it occurred more frequently than normal previously. The most famous case of gambler’s fallacy occurred on August 18th, 1913, when the ball fell in black 26 times in a row during a roulette game…
Alphonse Allais mentions, “Statistics have shown that mortality increases perceptibly in the military during wartime” (Statistics Quotes, 2). The author, Stephen M. Stigler, written the book title “The History of Statistics: The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900”, expressing the beginnings of statistics between the years 1700 to 1900. Stigler demonstrated how the roles of statistics play in applied sciences of “astronomy, geodesy, experimental psychology, genetics, and sociology”…
Definition 1.1 A random forest is a classifier consisting of a collection of tree structured classifiers { , k=1, ...} where the are independent identically distributed random vectors and each tree casts a unit vote for the most popular class a input x . Use of the Strong Law of Large Numbers shows that they always converge so that overfitting is not a problem [] . The accuracy of a random forest depends on the strength of the individual tree classifiers and a measure of the dependence between…
In our every day lives we are faced with risk; the possibility of losing something of value. This could include theft or re to property, sickness, disability or even death. As loss adverse as we are, we tend to set up mediums to prevent or recover from losses once incurred. One of these common mediums is insurance. Anderson and Brown (2005) denes insurance as an agreement where, for a stipulated payment called the premium, one party (the insurer) agrees to pay to the other (the policyholder or…
The employee was still having performance issues, however, the issue is now impacting the entire department. Hollensbe (2000) noted that success in open-goal plans is due to goal settings. The performance plan involved looking at the overall performance model in different sections: calls per hour, random sample method, and performance improvement. The call model showed that the calls per hour could be changed from a per hour model to a per month model. This allowed agents that were…