1) Linked Cluster Algorithm (LCA) [5], [6], [7]: LCA, was one of the initial clustering algorithms evolved. It was primarily developed for wired sensors, but later applied in wireless sensor networks. In LCA, a unique ID number is allotted to each node and has two means of becoming a cluster head. The first way is that if the node has the greatest ID number in the set including all neighbor nodes and the node itself. The second way is to assume that none of its neighbors are cluster heads, then it becomes a cluster head. In this way, LCA search a solution which is surely not an optimal solution. 2) Linked Cluster Algorithm (LCA) [5], [6], [7]: LCA2 was anticipated to reduce the selection of an unnecessary number of cluster heads, as in LCA. In LCA2, the concept of a node being covered and non-covered was introduced. A node is considered as covered if one of its neighbors is a cluster head. Cluster heads are primarily selected from nodes which are having lowest ID among non-covered neighbors. Again the probability of achieving success is less. 3) Highest-Connectivity Cluster Algorithm [7]: This algorithm is analogous to LCA. In…
Abstract- SVM(Support vector machine) is Mainly established for linear two-class classification through building an optimal splitting hyper plane, here the margin is maximized. SVM is useful for kernel trick to map the novel input space into a high dimensional feature space to improve the classifier generalization ability when the training data is not linear splitable. GA(Genetic Algorithm) is a stochastic and the empirical searching algorithm that is stimulated by natural evolution. The…
Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is one of combinatorial optimization problems. X TSP is NP-hard problem which defined as a set of cities and each city should be visited once with minimum tour length. This paper solved this problem using Firefly Algorithm (FA) and k-means clustering by three steps: cluster the nodes, finding optimal path in each cluster and connect the clusters. The first step is to divide all nodes into sub-problems using k-means clustering, the second step is to use FA to find…
1 Abstract — Information sent and received in wireless communication systems can suffer from data losses due to multipath propagation, further leading to intersymbol interference. These conditions compromise the integrity of the information transmitted. This paper explores the Viterbi algorithm used to combat error bounds in convolutional codes, and develops a MATLAB-based alternative model of the algorithm for continuous time applications that is shown to significantly diminish the effects of…
A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF NEAREST NEIGHBOUR ALGORITHM AND GENETIC ALGORITHM IN SOLVING TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM Ajaz Ahmed Khan Electronics and communication department SSGI FET Bhilai, India ajz70277@gmail.com Mrs. Himani Agrawal Electronics and communication department SSGI FET Bhilai, India Abstract—In this paper, we have used two algorithms, i.e. the Nearest Neighbor algorithm and Genetic Algorithm to solve the Travelling Salesman problem. The Travelling Salesman…
from technological progressions. One such ramification is the emergence of racism within the algorithms that dictate and govern…
On October 24, I taught a math lesson about subtracting using the traditional algorithm, to Mrs. Beach’s fourth grade class. When teaching the lesson, I felt very nervous because I did not think that I was teaching the material in the most comprehensive manner. After reflecting on why I felt this way, I think it was because I combined the modeling/direct instruction with the guided practice. I did not mean to do this on purpose, but I think it happened because I was worried about teaching…
• PSO Algorithm to generate test cases A. Initialize the population with N Particles where Program will search for optimal solution through the movement of these particles. And Set iterations counter I = 0. B. Apply Fitness function: Calculating the fitness value by calculating the percentage of this particle will share in minimizing the total processing time to find the optimal solution. C. Compare the calculated fitness value of each particle with its (lbest). If current value is better…
A relationship with numbers and codes is my fate. I learned math for an Olympic Mathematics Competition that I’ve been involved in since I was 9 years old. I became familiar with algorithms like congruence, Horner algorithm and graph theory before I could use a computer. Now as a senior in the school of mathematics at XX University, one of the top three mathematical schools in China. I chose math as my major to build a good mathematical foundation to thoroughly learn about computer science. With…
I do not believe the idea that the human brain is based on an algorithm, it is too complex due to it constantly gaining new experiences. Sweetie is constantly changing, her mood might be different, sweetie is always taking in new experiences, learning, the program simply is not capable of having the same ability. If the program somehow could continuously be connected to sweeties brain asking it and getting a response that would be effective however that is not possible. Let's say you ask the…