Raï

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    The word rai music has been able to create a distinct place in the Algerian history. The word rai means opinion. In the Algerian society, this genre of music has had a controversial position. Rai started off more as an expression of taboo topics, such as sexuality. It was the singer’s way of expressing their opinions and feeling about such taboo topics. So generally, in a growingly conservative society, rai was seen as “dirty,” “impure” and was looked down upon. In this paper, I am to look at how rai music grew its influence in the 1990’s during the troubled regime in Algeria and it became as a way to rebel against the Islamists. We are going to look at how the different components of rai such as, the singer, the songs and the performance played a key role in challenging the political situation of Algeria in the 1990’s. To better understand the role of rai, it is essential that we take a look at the political situation of Algeria in the 1990’s. In 1990 the Islamist group, Front Islamique du Salut, won the local elections and started increasing its influence. In 1991 they won the first round of national elections. This called for the army to rise against them and ploy a Coup de tat, and putting in a new President, Boudiaf. However, within few months of his presidency Boudiaf was assassinated. This marked the beginning of the Dark Decade in Algeria, where about 250,000 people were killed in the clash between the Islamist groups in Algeria and the army. Throughout this…

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    Nephrectomy: A Case Study

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    Surgical management continues to be the primary approach (e.g. nephrectomy, or repair of the RAA and reconstruction of the renal artery). However, the alternative approach of angiographic embolization has become, in recent years, better known (Prabulos AM et al. 1997). Majority of RAA ruptures usually occur in the third trimester and have left-sided predominance (Cohen et al. 1987; Hwang et al. 2011). This increased third-trimester risk is believed to be the result of: (1) expanded intravascular…

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    Atrial Fibrillation Paper

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    The specific aims of this study were as follows: Specific Aim 1. To characterize the study samples and utilization of RAAS inhibitors (i.e., the exposure/treatment of interest), BBs and CCBs (i.e., the two active control drugs) among Medicare beneficiaries with HTN (i.e., the target population) who filled prescriptions of one of the above study medications between January 1, 2007 and September 30, 2011. Specific Aim 2. To assess the preventive effect of RAAS inhibitors against the occurrence…

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    Mastectomy Essay

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    cancer patients receive the treatments of chemotherapy and radiotherapy combined to get the best possible outcome. The optimal sequencing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in breast cancer remains controversial (Zygogianni et al., 2014). Radiation therapy complete surgical resection, but also shows dramatic complete radiologic and pathologic resolution after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Arnaout et al., 2012). One negative effect of radiotherapy is Radiation-Associated Angiosarcoma (RAAS).…

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    Context for Longitudinal Study Using Competing Risk Approaches Despite the fact that the effectiveness of RAAS inhibitors in the primary prevention of AF has been evaluated by several population-based observational studies [23-25], it is not clear whether the RAAS inhibitors remain effective in the reduction of new-onset AF in the older adult hypertensive population when competing risks (e.g. all-cause death) exist. All of these studies simply ignored the existence of the competing risks in…

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    systems act to maintain hemodynamic stability, as a result of decreased CO. In the early stages, these compensating mechanisms are beneficial, however in the long run they stress the myocardium further and exacerbate the CHF. In response to a decreased CO, baroreceptors located within the aortic arch and the carotids stimulate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to release norepinephrine and epinephrine, which causes an increase heart rate, peripheral vascular resistance and contractility in…

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    Spironolactone Case Study

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    Spironolactone and then at a later date treated with Triamterene. This is merely due to the reason that Spironolactone is not as effective or as such not effective at all, therefore explaining why James saw no reduction in his hypertension even after a 4 week course of treatment. Triamterene was also combined with a low sodium diet in an effort to stabilise James’ high blood pressure. A low sodium diet also has the capability to enhance the effectiveness of Triamterene, hence why the…

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    inducing vasoconstriction,’ (McCance, Huether, et al, 2010). Furthermore, the SNS plays a critical role in individuals with hypertension as an increase in sympathetic stimulation can cause an increased production of catecholamines, hence directly effecting heart rate and pressure. Additionally, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) mechanism plays a vital role as a homeostatic mechanism and is of importance for understanding the pathogenesis of the disorder. Therefore, dysfunction of this…

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    environmental and genetics accumulating vascular tone and blood volume, causing increased blood pressure. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system regulates blood pressure, blood volume and fluid-electrolyte imbalances. Maintenance of blood pressure maintains tissue perfusion. Renin in released from the kidneys in the event of decreased blood pressure or serum sodium, increased by beta-adrenergic tone or prostaglandin release. Angiotensinogen within the lungs converts renin into angiotensin I.…

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    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors lower blood pressure and produce vasodilation by inhibiting ACE – blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, key mediators of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS). RAAS is the main mechanism for controlling BP. Angiotensin II is a vasoconstrictor and works by binding to angiotensin I receptors on smooth muscle – these are joined to a Gq protein and the IP3 signal transduction pathway. ACE usually breaks down bradykinin.…

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