Beta Blockers Essay

1583 Words 6 Pages
Beta blockers are the first line drug choice when treating angina related to CAD. Beta blockers decrease cardiac oxygen demand, by blocking beta receptors in the heart, decreasing heart rate and contractibility, reducing peripheral resistance and after load. Slowing heart rate increases diastolic fill time, increasing the amount of time blood flows throughout myocardial vessels. When taken with nitroglycerin, extra benefits include blunting reflex tachycardia. Dosage starts out low and slowly increases to a therapeutic level. Side effect of blocking beta2 causes bronchoconstriction, while blocking beta1 causes reduction of contractility and bradycardia. Use of specific medications within the class have varying side effects allowing use …show more content…
Natriuretic hormones involved with regulating peptides are as follows: C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), urodilatin and brain natriuretic peptide. The function of the hormones enhance renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate, generate diuresis, improve systemic vasodilation, subdue aldosterone and inhibit the SNS. Combination of dysfunctional SNS, RAAS and natriuretic peptides escalate vascular tone and transfer the pressure-natriuresis connections. Insufficient natriuretic function increases serum levels of peptides. Salt retention precedes water retention increasing blood volume, in turn increasing blood pressure. Tissue ischemia within the kidneys leads to inflammation further altering the function of the glomeruli and tubules increasing sodium retention. Renal inflammation has a volatile player in vascular dysfunction of hypertension. The release of vasoactive inflammatory cytokines is a result of tissue ischemia and endothelial injury. Chronic inflammations leads to remodeling and smooth muscle contraction. (McCance, Huether, Brashers & Rote, …show more content…
Primary diseases associated with secondary hypertension include disorders of the renal, endocrine, vascular, neurological disorders; pregnancy-induced hypertension, acute stress and drugs or other substances. Specific diseases or disorders include: renin-producing tumors, renal failure, acromegaly, hyperthyroidism, arteriosclerosis, pregnancy, elevated intracranial pressure, quadriplegia, surgery, burns over 9% or more of the body, alcohol withdrawal, oral contraceptives, antihistamines, licorice and MAOI’s. (McCance, Huether, Brashers & Rote,

Related Documents