Case Study Of Congestive Heart Failure

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A 94 year old female was admitted to the hospital with occurring symptoms of swelling (edema) in the both of the lower legs, shortness of breath (dyspnoea) and recent weight gain due to Congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic needs of the body (Figueroa & Peters, 2016). The result of inadequate cardiac output (CO) is poor organ perfusion and vascular congestion in the pulmonary (left-sided failure) and systemic (right-sided failure) circulation (Myers, 2014). This essay will discuss the symptoms in relation to the pathophysiological process of the alteration to cardiac function, CHF. It will discuss the three nursing assessments that are appropriate to use for each symptom to investigate further; these nursing assessments are pitting edema assessment, vital signs focusing on oxygen saturations, respiratory rate, and daily weigh. Lastly it will examine the interventions that are most suitable to prevent further damage, treat and support the best chances of recovery from CHF. In this case …show more content…
Renin secretion is stimulated by decreased blood volume, decreased renal perfusion, sodium and water depletion. Subsequently, renin promotes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to angiotensin II through the angiotensin converting enzyme. Due to angiotensin II being a potent vasoconstrictor, it also stimulates aldosterone secretion leading to sodium and water retention. The subsequent renal retention of sodium and water, coupled with an increase in heart rate and contractility, ultimately leads to an increase in preload and afterload, which further contributes to pulmonary and vascular congestion which creates the cycle of symptoms of CHF (Fletcher & Thomas,

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