Ibn Zuhr

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    scientific experimentations was first introduced by the Greeks in the 2nd century. In the article Scutti says, “Early Greek physician-scientists performed experiments on living animals. They conducted experiments in the areas of anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology” (Scutti). The Greeks examined sensory nerves, motor nerves, and tendons in order to better understand their functional differences. With animal testing they were able to identify the best instruments to use during specific procedures. They were also able to gain a better understanding of the cardio-pulmonary system and the spinal cord function. The article states that “An Arab physician of the 12th century, Ibn Zuhr, tested surgical procedures on animals before applying them to human patients” (“Animal Testing-ESDAW”). Ibn Zuhr was the first person to use animals to practice different surgical procedures on. He was known for testing his surgical procedures on goats and other small animals. Animal testing was starting to become very popular among the Arab people. Scientists began conducting experiments as public demonstrations. After a while people started realizing that animal experimentation was inhumane and that it needed to stop. Although animal testing has been around for thousands of years and some good things have come out of it, we need to find a better way to experiment and test out new products. When an animal is kept in a lab all their life they suffer from major stress and anxiety.…

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    that can replace animal testing. Including QSARs, which are a computer-based technique that estimates a substances likelihood of being hazardous. They do this based on its similarity to existing substances along with our knowledge of human biology. Lastly human volunteers have also been used in the place of animal tests. They use a method called “microdosing”. They give volunteers an extremely small one-time drug dose, the drug is then monitored by imaging techniques. Alternative…

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    Mansa Musa, the man with the famous legend of his haji to Mecca. He had lived from 1280 to 1337, and was the fourteenth century Mali Empire emperor. In 1312 Musa became emperor following the death of the previous ruler of Mali, Abu-Bakr II. Mali was an empire in West Africa that lasted from 1230 to 1600 and under Mansa Musa’s rule it became the largest and richest area of Africa. As Ruler of Mali he had captured the kingdom of Songhai and made its most major city, Timbuktu, a very vital and…

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    In this essay I am going to discuss a significant individual who had made is mark in African American history. This person goes by the name Mansa Musa. During the fourteenth century the emperor of Mali, Mansa Musa achieved greatness through so many of his actions. His contributions to Africa and to Mali are so widespread that he is known throughout the word.. Writers recorded Musa’s actions more than any other ruler meaning that Mansa Musa must have been an important king. Musa was even…

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    Which shows that the Islamic faith did indeed spread into various regions, along with the trade of merchandise. Ibn Battuta travels mid-thirteenth century as a religious seeker with the company of merchants’ journeying to Mali, an Islamic powered country governed by Mansa Sulayman. Being in Walata, Battuta is shocked to see that men and women can have affairs without anyone getting jealous, and are shameless of this practice. The women are more respectable than men, and do not veil themselves.…

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    Ibn Battuta Research Paper

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    Ibn Battuta was a Muslim scholar who travelled the known world in the fourteenth century. The son of a qadi, or Muslim judge, he was born in Tangier, Morocco, to a wealthy family of scholars. At the age of 22, having finished his education, Ibn Battuta went on a pilgrimage to Mecca in the year 1325. After reaching Mecca, he decided to continue travelling, which he did for the next 29 years of his life. During these years, Ibn Battuta met many rulers and held important positions in foreign lands.…

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    While it is easy for one to give up on their goals and move on, one can truly show strength by conquering the various challenges on their way to success. Homer’s, The Odyssey, is able to depict how persistence can lead to fulfillment. Homer’s purpose in the epic poem The Odyssey is to show society that though there are setbacks in life, one can overcome them with perseverance by employing katabasis by emphasize the various struggles Odysseus faces. Homer utilizes katabasis initially to…

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    Being one of the greatest cities of West Africa, Mali made a lasting on the Silk Road with their history, geography and trade. There were more differences than similarities between the two. Things such as geography are obviously different but there is more to it like history and trading. The Silk Road started at 200 bc while Mali was founded before 1000 ad. The Silk Road traded slaves, spices, cloth, and other goods. Mali traded gold mainly but other goods as well. A clear difference is, the…

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    Individualism in Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe was a journalist, a pamphleteer, a merchant but he was most famously known for being a novelist. His most famous book, being Robinson Crusoe, is set on a deserted island where a stranded man has to survive for 28 years. This oeuvre belongs to the English early novels and created a new form of storytelling. A storytelling in which Defoe wants his readers to believe that they are reading factual history rather than a piece of…

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    Dualism In Robinson Crusoe

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    Soomin Olivia Noh David Clark British Literature 12B 9 May 2016 The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Daniel Defoe In the 18th century England, anybody talked about novel. No one in anybody disagreed that Robinson Crusoe, the art of Daniel Defoe, made the trend of having anybody be interested in the novel. From this point, books were not the exclusive property of the privileged class, but what many citizens enjoyed in their daily lives. The lifetime of Daniel Defoe was not only shared as…

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