Human iron metabolism

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  • Iron Overload In Thalassemia

    Iron overload is due to the chronic transfusions needed to regulate effective red blood cells. The regulation and metabolism of iron is dependant on the regulatory hormone that is produced in the liver, known as hepcidin. Hepcidin helps regulate body iron homeostasis by determining the magnitude of dietary iron release from the enterocytes and stored iron release from reticuloendothelial macrophages (Feng, 2012). When activated it regulates the degradation of Ferroportin which is responsible for the transport of iron throughout the body. Normally hepcidin concentrations will increase in the presence of inflammation and iron overload (Silvestri et al, 2008). However low levels of hepcidin are found in thalassemic patients which causes iron deposition in major organs of the body. In turn this will lead to organ failure and eventually death (Gardenshi et al, 2007). The activation of SMAD 1,5,8/SMAD 4 complex is what causes the expression of hepcidin. Osteoporosis is a result of a decrease in low bone density and is frequently found in thalassemic patients and rodents (Charoenphandhu et al, 2011). In fact 33% to 20% of thalassemic patients experience osteopenia, a less severe form of osteoporosis, and are at a higher risk for bone fracturing. Low bone mass density is experienced in about 90% of transfusion dependant transfusion thalassemic patients (Gurevitch et…

    Words: 1615 - Pages: 7
  • Minerals In The Human Body

    the human body. Minerals are classified as major minerals or trace minerals. Major minerals include calcium and phosphorus. While, trace minerals include iron and zinc. Major minerals are defined as a mineral vital to health that is required in the diet in amounts more than 100 milligrams per day. Over 99% of the calcium in the human body strengthens bones and teeth. Calcium is often, found in dairy products like milk and cheese. Some secondary sources for calcium are in foods like bread,…

    Words: 784 - Pages: 4
  • Iron Bull Short Story

    you sure you really want me coming with you to your clan?” Iron Bull asked for the millionth time. And for the millionth time Terra would just smiled at him and pat his arm as they rode to the settlement that her clan was now a part of. Terra was excited to go see what they made of the city of Wycome and she decided it was time for her to bring Iron Bull home to the family. Which was what Iron Bull was decidedly less excited about. Between his previous knowledge, Dalish 's stories about her own…

    Words: 1389 - Pages: 6
  • Pestle Analysis Iron

    were made that manufacturers were incorrectly labeling the iron content on their products. The purpose of this experiment was to analyze the amount of iron in approximately one serving of Total Whole Grain cereal and in one iron tablet and determine if these accusations were true. The values collected would then be compared to the actual values for these products. Total cereal contains 100% of the recommended daily allowance for iron, and the iron tablet contains 361% of the recommended daily…

    Words: 1625 - Pages: 7
  • Personal Narrative: My Community Health Clinical Experience

    mid 20s with a 1-year-old, she was a very difficult patient. My nurse and I had to spend more time with this patient to communicate everything we were doing and explain why the procedures were important. This particular patient seemed uneducated on important health care practices, but once we explained why having a breast exam and pelvic exam were important in preventing breast cancer and cervical cancer, she began to comply. The other young woman was willing to comply with everything, but…

    Words: 736 - Pages: 3
  • Titanium Research Paper

    only trace or limited amounts of beta phase); alpha + beta alloys (presenting alpha stage and a small volume fraction of beta phase in symmetry, although martensite transformation can also occur upon fast cooling); and beta alloys (which do not transform martensitically upon fast cooling from the beta phase field) (Lütjering,Williams, 2007: 33–36). Unalloyed titanium products, which have titanium contents ranging from about 98 to 99.5wt%, are usually selected for their excellent corrosion…

    Words: 745 - Pages: 3
  • What Is Hardness?

    to obtain estimates of moduli and relative estimates of the strengths of individual phases within a multiphase alloy.Nevertheless,some empirical and approximate theoretical “rules-of thumb” have been developed to estimate the yield strength from the hardness.One “rules-of thumb ” states that yield strength is approximately equal to 1/3 of the measured hardness level. HARDNESS TEST METHODS: 1.The Brinell Test The Brinell test was the first static indentation test to come into general use.in its…

    Words: 907 - Pages: 4
  • The Importance Of Conductivity In Polymers

    A polymer is a large molecule which is formed by repeated linkage of small molecule called monomers. Conducting polymer have been the subjects for many decades as possible synthetic metals. Many of these polymer, especially those with a conjugated pi-bond system ,often yield higher conductivity once having undergone the doping process. Polymers are typically insulators due to their very high resistivity .Insulators have tightly bound electrons so that nearly no electron flow occurs ,and they…

    Words: 841 - Pages: 4
  • Titanium Alloy Essay

    AC 2.3: Explain the method of making titanium alloy and investigate how the composition and structure of metal alloys, polymers and poly-matrix composites influence the properties of the parent material. 1. Extraction process. 2. Melting process. 3. Storage process. Extraction of Titanium by Kroll process: First titanium ore Rutile (TiO2) is taken. Rutile is converted into titanium sponge by the following process: Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) – a colourless compound is obtained as a result…

    Words: 841 - Pages: 4
  • Desulphurization Of Steel Case Study

    Introduction Desulphurization of steel at ladle treatment of metal is one of the important technological operations. The successful course of the desulfurization process is provided by fire refining slag with specific chemical composition, usually based on calcium oxide. The duration of mixing of the metal with the slag in inert gas, the early formation of refining slag, then optimization of the metal oxidation providing the formation of iron oxide FeO in the slag to be less than 0.5 % able…

    Words: 1266 - Pages: 6
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