form the passive layer (described in further detail in the corrosion resistant part). The higher the content used the greater the protection of stainless steel from rust will be achieved.
Nickel → steadies the result of austenitic structure formation which enhances strength, ductility and toughness. It also increases the high temperature strength and cryogenic temperatures. It also makes the material non-magnetic.
Manganese → also acts as an austenite stabilizer but it also assists in removing oxidation during melting temperature and prevents the formation of iron sulphide which cause hot cracking.
Silicon → acts as a de-oxidant and acts as a ferrite stabilizer
Molybdenum → adds resistance to localized pitting attack and chlorides attacks
Aluminium → lowers hardenability and increases toughness and ductility
Columbium → acts as a grain refines in which reduces intergranular corrosion and raises the formation of ferritic stage when combined with carbon
Copper → increases their resistance to corrosion in particular stress corrosion cracking. It also provides age hardening effect.
Titanium → very similar to columbium it acts as a grain refines in which reduces intergranular corrosion and raises the formation of ferritic stage when combined with carbon
Sulphur → is used to improve machinability but with consequence of reducing resistance of pitting corrosion and may form unwanted sulphide inclusions.
5 Main groups of stainless steel
Figure 3: Graphical representation of…
Chemistry Task 2 Portfolio
Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as uncombined metals or as alloys.
Metal/Metal Alloy Uses Throughout History
Copper - Used to make ornaments and domestic utensils in historical times (not as tools as it is a soft metal)
- In modern times used in electrical wiring, pipes and plumbing fittings, jewellery, decoration,
- This is due to its malleability, ductility and good electrical conductivity.
want to lose or gain an electron is to form an octet, which is to have 8 valence electron in its outer shell. Elements with bigger radius and require less energy to release an electron are more reactive and are able to form an octet easier.
I hypothesize that if Calcium is in the lower period compared to the other metals, then it will be more reactive than the other two metals when faced with the tests, and that Aluminium will be the least reactive since it’s located across the group. This can…
Fig. 2 and Table 1 present the open circuit potential versus time curves and self-corrosion rate of Al, Alloy 1 and Alloy 2 electrodes in 2 M NaCl electrolyte, respectively. Corrosion rates were obtained by weight loss measurements in 2 M NaCl solution after 60 min. As seen in Table 1, the corrosion rate increases in the following order: Al ＜Alloy 1 ＜ Alloy 2. Fig. 2 indicates that open circuit potential of Alloy 1, 2 (especially Alloy2) is more negative than that of Al. It can be seen that the…
Ceramics material are compounds between metallic and non-metallic elements where it most frequently oxides, nitrides, and carbides(William D.callister,JR, David G. Rethwisch,2015). This material use for technical applications are commonly based on aluminium oxide. The properties of ceramics which are insulative to the passage of heat and electricity and more resistant to high temperature and harsh environment(William D.callister,JR, David G. Rethwisch,2015). Ceramics in cochlear implants use for…
\par Magnesium: As aluminum has been established as a leading role in automotive industry, the use of magnesium in automobile applications is yet limited. Magnesium exhibits a poor formability whereas aluminum has superior formability at room temperature. The main features of ductile magnesium alloys are that they have homogeneous microstructure which is free of brittle inter-metallic particles and having uniform plastic deformation promoted by its grain size as well as its crystallographic…
Chemistry is a world many of us forget exist in our daily lives. We go about our routines, forgetting that chemistry plays a key role in our lives. As a skier, I noticed the unseen world of chemistry when I am preparing for ski races, waxing my skis.
Preparing my skis for a race weekend requires applying multiple layers of wax to my skis. The wax we use is commonly a fluorocarbon mixture. In order for the wax to be saturated into the ski, the block must be melted with an iron. Once the…
Copper is a nonrenewable material. It comes from
a mineral deposit that the time it takes to produce
copper is too long to be concidered renewable.
According to the Copper Alliance, copper is
100% recyclable. In fact, 9 million tones of copper
is recycled each year. The recyclable process of
copper uses 85% less energy than its original
When a person is exposed to uncoated copper
such as in coocking pans or drinking utenciles,
copper can be toxic.
Copper is a durable, tough…
This paper will discuss about "the Hall-Heroult Process" history, process, and the two scientists that created this process. The Hall-Heroult process came to be in 1886 in the race of commercially viable route to aluminum by two men working independently, who are Paul Heroult and Charles M. Hall who was assisted by his sister Julia Brainerd Hall. The Hall-Heroult process is the process for smelting aluminum that involves dissolving the aluminum oxide in molten cryolite and electrolysis the…
Koutsomichalis et al (2008) discussed that having high hardness and good adhesion with the substrate the sprayed coating exhibited satisfactory wear resistance. Tungsten carbide is an advanced ceramic material combining a unique set of properties such as high hardness, high melting point, wear resistance, good thermal shock resistance, thermal conductivity and good resistance against oxidation. They can be applied as coatings by thermal spraying processes such as plasma-spraying, high-velocity…