Glutamate transporter

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  • Sa2 Case Study

    Optogenetic stimulation of LH neurons expressing vesicular GABA transporter (LHVGat ; putative GABA neurons) induces feeding and optical self-stimulation, whereas selective ablation of these neurons reduces feeding, body weight gain, and motivation to obtain palatable reward124. VTA MC3R-GABA may decrease feeding and/or food reward by direct inhibition of LHVgat neurons. Additionally, VTA MC3R expressing neurons may affect feeding and food reward by indirect action on LH GABA neurons. Activation of AcbSh D1R neurons projecting to LH GABA neurons results in feeding bout termination101. VTA MC3R-DA neurons may decrease feeding and food reward by indirect inhibition of LHVGat neurons via activation of AcbSh D1R…

    Words: 736 - Pages: 3
  • The Long Term Effects Of Fast Food

    Have you ever been sitting in line for a fast food restaurant and wondered what the long term effects the food we are about the purchase could be making on our bodies? Fast food has many different additives that are coloring our foods and preservatives such as sodium nitrate, MSG (monosodium glutamate), and even feathers and hair that are commonly labeled as L-cysteine and more that are in many different foods that most individuals consume on a daily basis. Fast food may be good, but it has…

    Words: 1511 - Pages: 7
  • Depression And Anxiety Disorders: A Literature Review

    Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2000). For Anxiety its symptoms must remain persist for at least six months, with three or more of the six symptoms being present more days than not. Controlling worrying becomes increasingly difficult. It also incldes feeling restlessness, easily fatigued, concentration diminished, irritable, muscle tension and sleep disturbance. (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2000). Most people that experience negative life events do not…

    Words: 1012 - Pages: 4
  • Glutamate Degradation

    After astrocytes remove glutamate from the ECS, glutamate must be isolated and degraded. Glutamate transporters are bidirectional, so intracellular elevations of glutamate levels will lead to an electrochemical gradient-mediated release if the molecule is not destroyed. If glutamate release is unregulated glutamate accumulates in the ECS and impairs the survival of neurons. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) helps degrade glutamate into a-ketoglutarate, an intermediary in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA)…

    Words: 785 - Pages: 4
  • Chapter 2: Toxin-Based Animal Model

    CHAPTER 2 – ANIMAL MODELS 5. Animal models: 5.a. Neurotoxic Models: 5.a.1. 6- Hydroxydopamine model: One of the most frequently used toxin-based animal model is 6-OHDA. It was first isolated in 1950. It is frequently used in rats. It shows affinity for catecholaminergic transporter. For example, norepinephrine transporter and dopamine transporter. Though the structure of 6-OHDA is similar to dopamine but the existence of excess amount of hydroxyl group makes it toxic to dopaminergic neurons.…

    Words: 1559 - Pages: 7
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    increased level of glutamate. Glutamate is a chemical messenger that can be found in the brain, spinal fluid, and surrounding the nerve cells. Abnormal amounts of this chemical can be toxic to particular nerve cells causing damage. Another possible cause of this disease is an improper immune response; the immune system begins to attack the body’s cells leading to weakened and eventually dead nerve cells. Malfunctions of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; amyotrophic…

    Words: 1129 - Pages: 5
  • Alzheimer's Degenerative Disease

    Alzheimer’s is a common neurodegenerative disease that accounts for the majority of all cases of dementia (Advokat, Comaty & Julien, 2014). Although the exact cause of Alzheimer’s is unknown, it is hypothesized that two systems crucial for the communication between brain cells fail due to the down regulation of acetylcholine and the over activation of glutamate, which result in the death of neurons (IOS Press, 2008). It is believed to involve the irreversible loss of cholinergic neurons,…

    Words: 1522 - Pages: 6
  • Serotoniin Research Paper

    serotonergic action in depressed patients. Provided by many research and clinical evidence, it has been proven that SSRIs are the most effective and the most commonly prescribed antidepressant medications for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) today. The primary target of SSRIs is the SERT transporter. By having a high affinity and blocking the SERT transporter, there is an increased availability of serotonin in the synaptic space. The increase of serotonin concentration at the…

    Words: 1264 - Pages: 6
  • Neurosis And Epigenetic Synthesis Essay

    depression. It is most likely a combination of genes that lead to the disorder.( cite) The causes of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders may also be traced to a combination of genetic factors. Genetic transmission is a recognized factor in depression and heritability runs at about 40 per cent for major depression (CITE) Chemicals in the brain such as serotonin and others substances like GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, adrenaline/noradrenaline play a key part in the development of depressive…

    Words: 863 - Pages: 4
  • Social Anxiety Research Paper

    the brain like amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum are responsible for a range of functions, specifically cognitive and processes such as attention, memory, judgement, and more importantly the interpretation about self and other individuals. Many therapists believe that individuals who suffer from SAD, have circuits that send distorted assumptions in response to random images of human faces, which suggests that a system that is sensitive to harmful stimuli. Looking at it from…

    Words: 1510 - Pages: 7
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