The Effects Of Depression And Anxiety

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Studies that relate to negative life events have appeared regularly in the psychological, psychosomatic, sociological and clinical medical journals. So much so that the stress from the events have been transferred and correlated with aggravating physical diseases such as cancer and HIV. (Cooper, 1987 and Breet, Kagee & Seedat, 2014). Selye (1956), defined stress as a “general adaptation syndrome,” caused by an “organism’s response to stressful conditions or stressors, consisting of a pattern of physiological and psychological reactions, both immediate and delayed.” (Robkin & Strueinung, 1976, p.1014). The field was first formally recognised in 1949 in a conference on Life stress and Bodily disease that was sponsored by the Association …show more content…
The literature focuses primarily on negative events that cause depression and anxiety and how genetic factors play a role for susceptibility to the illnesses. The two illnesses are usually comorbid in that they are pertained in the same genetic risk factor, (Roy, Neale, Pedersen, Mathe ́, & Kendler, 1995 and Gunthert et al., 2007). Depression is clinically catogerised in the DSM- IV-TR as loss of interest or pleasure that lasts longer than two weeks with at least five of the following symptoms being present. The person’s normal functionality in regards to their social, occupational or educational standards are impaired. Indicators are significant weight changes, sleep patterns, activity, fatigue, guilt/ worthlessness reduced concentration and thoughts or attempts of suicide. (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2000). For Anxiety its symptoms must remain persist for at least six months, with three or more of the six symptoms being present more days than not. Controlling worrying becomes increasingly difficult. It also incldes feeling restlessness, easily fatigued, concentration diminished, irritable, muscle tension and sleep disturbance. (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, …show more content…
(Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). This interaction forms the diathesis-stress model; though the research has been extensive there has been confounding evidence. Research that has tried to replicate the studies has unsuccessfully failed. However, it should be noted that it has been due to the poor methodology. Due mainly to the response scales and how observers rate them, completion by the family members of the participants and participants themselves. This increases under or over reporting and bias. In addition, the validity of the scales used is not always internally valid and reliable (Peterson et al, 2012 and Surtees et al.,

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