Formal system

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    article “Informal Institutions and Comparative Politics: A Research Agenda,” Gretchen Helmke and Steven Levitsky propose that informal institutions form as much or more importance in politics as formal institutions. Throughout the article Helmke and Levitsky provide us with similarities and comparisons of both institutions and a definition for each institution. According to both researchers, it is not possible to explain political performance without focusing on both institutions as we can sometimes view them as a cause and effect. For example, an informal institution might develop due to the inefficiency of a formal institution and vice versa. However, informal institutions might also present themselves when there are no other rules. Consequently, we were explained how to differ institutions and recognize the interaction between them (complementary, accommodating, competing and substitutive), why institutions are created and how they are created and changed. In the beginning of the article, readers are explained the importance of informal institutions and how this institutions can be distinguished from other institutions and non-institutions. Helmke and Levitsky begin by defining informal institutions as “socially shared rules, usually unwritten,…

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    According to Max Weber, bureaucracy can be termed as the formal system of an organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. In line with this, there are principles that can be used in such an organizational structure. These principles include job specialization (Altman 2013). In this case, management of an organization is charged with ensuring that they divide their jobs into a simple, routine and fixed category based on competence and functional specialization.…

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    This word changes the tone of the whole sentence and creates a feeling of negativity that the audience then picks up. Cullington expresses a concern about the negative impact of “textspeak” as well. In the first section of her article, she interviews English teachers about how they feel “textspeak” is affecting their students. She states that an English teacher “believes that text language has become “second nature” to her student (Carey); they are so used to it that they do not even catch…

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    When she grows up she plans to attend college and major in creative writing. One of her specialties is writing poetry. The poems she writes are upbeat and cheerful, just like her personality. One of the reasons she likes writing poetry is because she doesn’t feel restricted by rigid rules. Poems can be written in any language style, so whatever mood she’s in that day is often reflected in her poems. As a result, she has written poems in formal and formal language. She also has authored poems…

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    I always observe family members and friends of residents coming in to see their beloved ones. This unit is for those residents you are independent, this means that they do not require much attention; the main things we do is reminding them to attend to their activities of daily living and sometimes take their clothes to the laundry. If you do something for them they do appreciate it as long as you are maintaining their independence. We communicate with the family members either in person or…

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    Police departments should only retain juvenile records when necessary for investigations or formal referrals to the juvenile or criminal justice systems. Police officers should avoid the stigmatizing effect of juvenile records by retaining only minimal records necessary for investigation and referral in accordance with Juvenile Records and Information Systems standards for retention of police records (Kaufman, I. 1979). This is important because the holding of many records can affect the…

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    Linguistic Observation

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    The greeting that best identifies the scenario is near-boundary occurrence because the greeting mainly occurred at the beginning of the social interaction. The greeting was a combination of formal and informal because the women in her early thirties politely said, “Buenos Dias (Good Morning)” followed by a handshake. Due to the handshake I infer that there is a formal boundary between the family and the women. On the contrary the male in his early thirties greeted the older couple also by saying…

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    phone call that I had received a job interview for the role of team member. For the interview I had to dress in smart, formal attire and once I had arrived respectful body language was used. For example I greeted the interviewer with a hand shake and a smile then I sat with good posture which showed I was listening intently and cared about what the interviewer had to say. Once the interview had been commenced I responded to the interviewer with formal language and used hand motions to articulate…

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    The purpose of the camp is to help teens step out of their comfort zones, begin to have more of an open mind, and intact positive change in their communities. Because we are trying to inspire these kids, it is important that all staff members follow certain conventions. In the months leading up to camp and during camp, the tone amongst staff members is informal but informative. When speaking to possible sponsors, the tone is formal and professional. Getting these two mixed up could result in…

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    Patient Counseling

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    right of the patients to know how the consumption of the medication can be risky. In this case, the pharmacist should directly inform the patient about the side effects and the actions that must be taken in case of side effects. Using non-verbal clues and indirect form of verbal communication or not conveying the message clearly, can cause confusion and result in death. Patient counseling should fall on the formal side in formal/informal forms of verbal communication. The Interpersonal…

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