Folic acid

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    Pharmacodynamics refers to the relationship between drug concentration at the site of action and the resulting effect, including the time course and intensity of therapeutic and adverse effects (Ashp.org, 2015). Folic acid is required as a one-carbon donator in the de novo synthesis of nucleoproteins and in maintaining sufficient erythropoiesis. Co-factors of folic acid in the form of tetrahydrofolate participate in transformation reactions, with one of these essential reactions producing deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), one of three enzymes involved in the synthesis of thymidine, a nucleic acid of DNA. This reaction is achieved by thymidylate synthase catalyzing the transfer of the one-carbon unit of N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to…

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    Trisomy 21

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    require more special education. Down’s syndrome is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities present in humans in the modern era. It typically occurs once per one thousand babies born per year. Most individuals from Down syndrome have mild to average IQ. In some cases it is as low as 20-35. As the patients age, they perform less than their same-age peers. Down’s syndrome is also responsible for around one third of all the intellectual disabilities. There is no way to eradicate Down’s…

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    The food we eat is what provides the function of our bodies. It 's influences the body’s healing and growing process, and it is how energy is received. Food and proper nutrition during pregnancy is crucial. During this time the pregnant women are eating for not only herself, but another life. It is important for the pregnant women to be aware and cautious of what she eats, in order to deliver a healthy baby. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of proper nutrition for a…

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    Folic acid deficiency has been identified as a risk factor for the development of neural tube defects (McLone, & Bowman, 2016a). Certain medications such as valproate or folic acid antagonists also increase risk (McLone, & Bowman, 2016a). Prenatal diagnosis can be done by maternal screening of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels between 15-20 weeks gestation (McLone, & Bowman, 2016a). Diagnosis is confirmed with ultrasound. Before the 12th week it is possible to see irregularities of the bony…

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    Spina Bifida

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    The most known cause to have correlation with Spina Bifida is low levels of the vitamin folic acid within the mother during her time of pregnancy. Some evidence has been found to be linked with genetics, such as a family history of neural tube defects, but there are situations where there has been no present gene to cause the defect. Also, women with in increased or high fever during pregnancy have an increased chance of having a baby with this condition. In addition, there is evidence that…

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    The greatest advancement among this population is the drastically reduced numbers of infants born with neural tube defects. This is mainly due to the fact that the federal government requires cereal grain products to be fortified with folic acid and community health campaigns have encouraged “women of childbearing age to make sure they get the recommended amounts of folic acid” ("CDC", 2011). Over the past decade, the U.S. has seen a massive savings in healthcare costs related to lowering the…

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    example, more than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million.(Ogunkolade et al., 2013) Vitamin B12(Cobalamine) is a group of compounds with corrinoid ring (4-pyrrole rings) with cobalt (Co). Vitamin B12 are synthesized exclusively by bacteria and have different functional groups chelated to Co. (University of Aberdeen, 2016) Vitamin B12 and folate depend on each other for activation. Both vitamin B12 and folate are very important for DNA…

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    Preconception Care Essay

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    This health policy attempts to reduce the number of adverse birth outcomes caused by a dearth of preconception care. The evidence-based interventions suggested in the policy are primarily focused on education and testing. Attainable education-based interventions include a focus on nutrition related to folic acid and iron intake, avoidance of environmental hazards such as pesticides, lead, and methyl mercury in fish, and family planning initiatives including birth spacing and contraceptive…

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    Multivitamins

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    Research does not answer this question because most study’s that are performed on prenatal vitamins the women are already pregnant or are striving to actively be pregnant (Sfakianaki, 2013). Since the daily multivitamins come with many different strengths of the contents, research shows that there is not enough data or evidence to recommend a certain multivitamin to the average non-pregnant female (Sfakianaki, 2013). However, high evidence was found with recommendations for folic acid intake…

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    Spina Bifida Aperta

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    infant.The sac can burst during the birth and the spine and nerves can be exposed at birth.A baby like this type of spina bifida mostly has a paralysis. Spina bifida has not yet been detected what causes it.But scientist have the impression that both environmental and hereditary traits can cause this birth defect.They say it could have been that the mother has been taking too many prenatal vitamins and not as many folic aids.Evidence say that genes could be the cause of this, but infants that…

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